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A Sample Pest Control Business Plan Template. Are you about narrative starting a pest control business? If YES, here is short story literary essay assignment, a complete sample pest control business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for narrative blogspot, starting a pest control business. We also took it further by story essay, analyzing and drafting a sample pest control service marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for narrative essay, pest control businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to citing a website research paper mla format, the business planning section. Why Start a Pest Control Business? If you are thinking of starting a business that can guarantee you steady income, then one of your options is to consider starting pest control business. Pest control businesses is narrative essay blogspot, a business that is how to write statement for an essay, involved in removing or eradicating potentially harmful insects, rodent and reptiles from, farms, commercial and essay blogspot residential properties.

These days more than ever before in literary essay, the world, more and more people are conscious of narrative essay blogspot, eradicating things that might bring ill health to them. Short Story Literary Analysis Essay Assignment! So you will find that it is a very good business to start. It is important to state that before you can start a pest control business in the United States of America and of course in most developed countries of the narrative essay world, you must apply for a pest control license and pass an exam to demonstrate your ability to properly handle chemicals and narrative other means to exterminate pests properly. After that has been done, then you must write a business plan. This is a very important hurdle to scale because it would help give your business a sense of direction. You may consider employing the services of a business consultant who will help in writing this plan. However, you might not be able to narrative essay blogspot, afford the exorbitant fee that is in a mla format, being charged by these folks. As such, you may want to make do with writing it by yourself. Essay! But, how easy is it to write a plan/ Well, not so easy if you do not have an citing paper, inkling of what the exercise entails.

However, there is respite when you use a business plan template; A Sample Pest Control Business Plan Template. Pest control basically refers to the regulation or management of a species of insects, animals or birds defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to a person#8217;s health, the ecology or the narrative economy and a person who carries out pest control services is known as an exterminator. When we talk of citing, pest control, we are talking of a service that is as old as agriculture practices. This is so because there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests – pest affects the overall growth and harvest of crops. Which is why in order to maximize food production, it is narrative essay blogspot, advantageous to protect crops from competing species of plants, as well as from herbivores competing with humans. Basically, the Pest Control industry provides a wide range of services such as extermination services for billing system proposal, mosquitoes, rodents, termites, bed bugs, cockroaches, ants, flies, ticks, fleas, wasps and spiders. Businesses in the pest control industry also provide fumigation services and containment services for birds such as pigeons, woodpeckers and European starlings et al. If you are conversant with the industry, you will observe that well – structured pest control companies also offer services such as building maintenance services, landscaping care and maintenance and lawn and garden services. No doubt the rise of narrative essay blogspot, bed bugs across the United States has left homeowners and short literary essay assignment business owners frustrated, but has been a blessing for businesses in the Pest Control industry.

The increased occurrence of bed bugs has led to substantial demand for exterminators and blogspot rising service prices. It was projected that within the next five years, there will be an writing learning, increase in narrative blogspot, business and consumer spending which of course will drive the demand for regular control and inspections for pests. So also, with increase in billing and inventory thesis, income, businesses and consumers will be less likely to opt for low-cost household products from home and garden stores. The Pest Control Services industry of is indeed a large industry and pretty much thriving in all the parts of the world especially (both in developed and developing nations). Narrative! Rollins Inc. and Services masters are the pest control services companies with leading market shares in short literary essay assignment, the industry. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about blogspot 23,984 licensed and registered pest control businesses responsible for employing about and inventory 107,209 employees and the industry rakes in narrative blogspot, a whooping sum of $16bn annually with an annual growth rate projected at 4.9 percent. Over and above, pest control service businesses all over the world are still enjoying good patronage particularly if they are well positioned and if they know how to reach out to their target market. Research! Pest Control Business Plan Executive Summary. The name of our company is Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC. We are a registered and licensed pest control services business that is incorporated under the narrative essay blogspot law of the United States of America.

Although our core business activities will always be carried out on the field / site, but we will secure a small office facility in essays on the, a densely populated business district in the heart of Dallas Texas, U.S. We are strategically positioned in between a residential center and an industrial hub and we are set to services the whole of the community both corporate clients and individual clients alike. Our basic service offering to our highly esteemed customers as a pest control company will revolve around Exterminating services, Fumigating services, Mosquito eradication services, Pest control (except agricultural and forestry) services, Termite control services, Bird proofing services, Rodent extermination and control. Other services include bird-proofing and mosquito control and Insect control, including bed bugs, cockroaches and ants. Our intention of narrative, starting a pest control business is to offer only the above stated services, but we will not close our doors to essays intellectual, diversification (additional services such as lawn care services, pest control advisory and consultancy services and building maintenance services) as long as it does not affect our core services.

In the bid to maximize our position as the leading pest control company in Dallas Texas. At Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC we are passionate in the pursuit of excellence and financial success with uncompromising services and integrity which is why we have decided to start our own pest control business; we are in narrative, the industry to make a positive mark. We are quite optimistic that our values and quality of service offering will help us drive our pest control business to enviable heights and also help us attract the numbers of a background statement for an essay, clients that will make the business highly profitable. We are a company that will be dedicated to establishing good business relationship with our clients giving them value for their money and narrative blogspot reasons for them to hire our services over and over again. We are quite aware that in order to become the number one choice in our city, we must continue to deliver quality pest control services and degree that is exactly what we will do. We are open to the use of latest technology in the pest control industry. No doubt our excellent customer service, honesty and the range of services we offer will position us to always welcome repeated customers. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC is owned and managed by Mr. Joseph Drake (Popular called Uncle Joe and Family. Joseph Drake is licensed under the United States law to handle pest control related chemicals and he has well over 15 years of experience managing some of the leading pest control companies in different cities in the United States of America and Canada prior to starting Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC.

Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC is a standard and well equipped pest control company that offers a wide range of narrative essay blogspot, services that revolves around the pest control industry and other complementary services. We intend giving our customers every reason to always hire our services which is story essay assignment, why we have customized our services. Basically, our services will involve us going out to services of clients’ needs. These are the services we will offer as a mobile car wash and auto detailing company; Exterminating services Fumigating services Mosquito eradication services Pest control (except agricultural and narrative essay blogspot forestry) services Termite control services Bird proofing services Rodent extermination and control Insect control, including bed bugs, cockroaches and ants Lawn care services Building maintenance services Other relevant services, including bird-proofing and mosquito control Pest control consultancy and advisory services. Our Vision is to become the number one pest control services company in the whole of short story analysis assignment, Dallas Texas with active presence in essay blogspot, major cities in the United States of America and Canada.

Our mission as a pest control services company is to develop a highly successful, profitable all round pest control services business which provides quality services in literary analysis essay, our community and to become a standard for an ideal pest control services business not only in the State of Texas but also throughout the United States of America and Canada where we intend selling our franchise. We are quite aware that the success of any business lies in the foundation on narrative blogspot which the business is built on, which is why we have decided to build our pest control Services Company on the right business foundation. As a matter of fact, we are set out to system thesis, build a pest control services business that will be a standard for essay, the pest control services line of business in degree distance learning, the United States of America and narrative Canada. We want to short literary, build a business of dedicated workforce who will go all the way to ensure that our customers are satisfied and they get value for their money. In other to achieve this, we aware that it takes a business with the right employees and essay blogspot structure to achieve all what we have set to achieve, which is why will be putting structures and processes in citing in a paper, place that will help us deliver excellent services and run the business on auto pilot. The success of essay, our pest control services company will be anchored on the team not on write a background statement any individual. With the wide range of our service offerings, we are only essay blogspot, expected to employ more than it is required to citing a website in a paper mla format, run a conventional pest control services business. Definitely, we will have various employees to man the various services offering of Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC.

Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC will employ professionals and skilled people to occupy the following position; Manager (Owner) Accountant / Cashier Marketing and Sales Executive Client Service Executive Field Workers (Pest Exterminators) (6) Truck / Van` Driver. Roles and narrative blogspot Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the short story literary essay assignment development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals and payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the essay blogspot organization Responsible for managing the daily activities in the organization Ensure that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Prepares budget and essay reports for blogspot, the organization Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of creative degree distance learning, HR and essay blogspot administrative tasks for narrative essay blogspot, the organization Designs job descriptions with KPI to drive performance management for all employees Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders (clients and member of the board) to review the effectiveness of the narrative essay business Policies, Procedures and citing research paper Processes Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Blogspot! Ensures operation of equipment by short story literary assignment, completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for essay blogspot, repairs. Narrative! Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Oversees the smooth running of the daily activities of organization.

Marketing and Sales Executive. Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new clients, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and blogspot financing of projects; assures the completion of short story essay assignment, projects. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and narrative essay communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC in narrative blogspot, strategic meetings Helps to increase sales and growth for narrative essay blogspot, Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and narrative blogspot financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and narrative blogspot accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for narrative essay, financial forecasting and risks analysis.

Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for the organization Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC Serves as internal auditor for Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC. Client Service Executive. Welcomes clients and narrative blogspot visitors by greeting them in creative degree uk, person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Essay Blogspot! Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in the company’s products and essays on the intellectual services Manages administrative duties assigned by the manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on essay the organizations’ products and, promotional campaigns etc. to write statement essay, ensure accurate and essay blogspot helpful information is supplied to clients when they make enquiries. Field Workers (Pest Exterminators) (6): Responsible for handling core services offering that revolve around pest exterminating services Responsible for handling fumigating services Responsible for handling mosquito eradication services Handles Pest control (except agricultural and a website in a mla format forestry) services Handles Termite control services Responsible for handling Bird proofing services Responsible for narrative essay, handling Rodent extermination and control Handles Insect control, including bed bugs, cockroaches and ants Responsible for handling lawn care services Handles Building maintenance services Handles other services, including bird-proofing and how to statement essay mosquito control. Responsible for transporting equipment, supplies and narrative blogspot workers to project site Runs errand for the organization Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Essays! Pest Control Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Pest control services business is one of the many businesses that can easily generate sales with little stress as long as they are well positioned and equipped to carry out their services. We are building a standard pest control services business with variety of narrative blogspot, services which is why we have decided to research, subject our business idea (company) to SWOT Analysis.

Ordinarily we can successfully run a normal pest control services business without the stress of going through the required protocol of setting up a new business including writing a detailed business plan, but because of the nature of the kind of pest control services business we want to narrative essay, establish, we don’t have any option other than to a website, follow due process. We hired the services of Mr. Coleman Carrington, an HR and Business consultant with bias in startups to help us conduct SWOT analysis for our company and essay he did a pretty job for us. Here is a preview of the result we got from the SWOT analysis that was conducted on literary behalf of Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC, Dallas Texas; Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is narrative essay blogspot, centrally located in narrative essay, a densely populated industrial and residential estate in Dallas Texas; our location is in fact one of our major strength. We have a well – equipped state of the narrative blogspot art pest control equipment and tools and we are also one of the very few pest control services companies in the whole of Dallas Texas that offers a wide range of services for both households and corporate clients. Creative Degree Distance Learning! Another strength that counts for us is the power of our team; our workforce and management. Essay Blogspot! We have a team that are considered experts in the pest control services industry, a team of hardworking and dedicated individuals. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is a new business which is owned by an individual (family), and citing in a paper we may not have the narrative financial muscle to sustain the kind of publicity we want to give our business. As a new business, we are also quite aware that it will take time for us to build trust with our clients and win corporate clients who are usually heavy spenders. Write Statement Essay! We are centrally located in one of the busiest area in Dallas Texas and we are open to all the available opportunities that the city has to offer. Our business concept also positioned us to be a one stop shop in the pest control and building maintenance line of business.

The truth is that there are no standard and well – equipped pest control services business within the area where ours is going to be located; the closest pest control Services Company to our proposed location is about 6 miles away. In a nutshell, we do not have any direct competition within our target market area. Some of the blogspot threats that are likely going to confront Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is unfavorable government policies, seasonal fluctuations, demographic / social factors, downturn in writing distance learning, the economy which is likely going to affect consumers spending and of course emergence of new competitors within the same location where ours is located. Pest Control Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. No doubt the rise of bed bugs across the United States has left homeowners and business owners frustrated, but has been a blessing for narrative blogspot, businesses in the Pest Control industry. The increased occurrence of bed bugs has led to substantial demand for exterminators and rising service prices. It was projected that within the next five years, there will be an increase in a background, business and narrative consumer spending which of course will drive the narrative essay demand for narrative essay blogspot, regular control and inspections for pests. So also, with increase in income, businesses and consumers will be less likely to opt for low-cost household products from home and garden stores. Learning! Pest control services business responds to essay blogspot, the increase in household spending and also increase in the volume of unwanted pests in a website research, an area or city in a particular area or city. Narrative Essay Blogspot! The trend of the market can be predicted without stress. The trend in the pest control services industry is that most pest control services companies in the bid to citing mla format, survive the recent global economic meltdown included additional services to their core service offerings.

Some pest control services companies includes building maintenance services, selling of chemicals and pest control accessories, lawn care services, and even pest control consultancy and advisory services within the blogspot same premises if they have enough space. It is much easier for pest control services companies to increase their revenues by diversifying as against increasing the scope of their market. Before choosing a location for our pest control services business, we conducted our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who will benefit greatly from our service offerings. Basically those who will benefit from our service offering are households, facility managers, commercial farmers and government agencies et al. They cut across different sectors of the short story economy. The demographic component of those who need the services of pest control services spreads across the public sector, the narrative blogspot organized private sector, and individuals from different strata of the society and from all walks of life. Essays On The Intellectual Powers! Below is a list of the narrative essay people and organizations that our pest control service is designed for; The public sector; government ministries, agencies and and inventory system thesis proposal parastatals. Organized private sector Households Commercial farmers Green house farmers Facility managers Boarding House / Campuses Playground / parks Estates and Communities Farm settlements Camp grounds Corporate organization.

Our Competitive Advantage. Although a license and permit is required from the government before starting pest control services business because of the various chemicals involved in narrative, the trade, but the truth is that it is an easy to set up business; anybody can set a pest control services business if they have the required startup capital and determination to acquire the required license from the government on handling chemicals. It means that the possibility of pest control services business springing up in the location where our pest control services company is located is writing degree distance learning uk, high. We are aware of blogspot, this which is why we decided to come up with a business concept that will position us to become the citing in a research mla format leader in narrative essay, Dallas Texas. Our competitive edge is that we are standard pest control services business that has loads of complimentary business offerings that can easily assist us in attracting both individual clients and corporate clients within the radius of our pest control services business. We can confidently say that the creative writing degree uk location of narrative, our pest control services business will definitely count as a positive for us amongst any competitor that might start a pest control services business in same location where ours is located. For the learning time being, Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC has no real competitors that can match compete with the quality of services we offer and our business offerings et al.

Our customer service will be customized to essay, meet the essays on the powers needs of all our customers. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups pest control services business and other related businesses in the United States) in the industry. Essay! It will enable them to billing and inventory system proposal, be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and narrative blogspot objectives. Pest Control Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. And Inventory Thesis! Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Blogspot! The marketing strategy for Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is going to be driven basically by excellent customer service, honesty and quality service delivery. We will ensure that we build a loyal customer base.

We want to drive sales via the output of our jobs and via referral from our satisfied customers. We are quite aware of how satisfied customers drive business growth especially businesses like pest control services. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is a pest control services business that is strategically located and we are going to maximize the opportunities that is creative writing degree learning, available which is essay blogspot, why we spend more to locate the on the intellectual business in essay blogspot, a location that will be visible and enable us to access our target market. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC. Our goal is to grow Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC to become the leading pest control services company in Dallas Texas which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with in the pest control services industry. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our pest control services business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to corporate organizations, commercial farms and farm settlements, facility managers, households and key stake holders in Dallas Texas. Print out fliers and business cards and short analysis essay strategically drop them in offices, libraries, public facilities and train stations et al.

Use friends and family to spread word about our business Post information about our company and narrative essay the services we offer on bulletin boards in places like schools, libraries, and local coffee shops et al Placing a small or classified advertisement in the newspaper, or local publication about our company and the services we offer Leverage on referral networks such as agencies that will attract clients who would need our customized services Advertise our pest control services company in relevant magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. Attend relevant expos, seminars, and business fairs et al to blogspot, market our services Engage in direct marketing approach Encourage the use of word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied students Join local chambers of narrative blogspot, commerce and industry to market our services. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is established with the narrative aim of maximizing profits in the pest control services industry and we are going to blogspot, go all the way out to ensure that we do all it takes to attract both individual clients and blogspot corporate clients on a regular basis. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC will generate income by offering the following services; Exterminating services Fumigating services Mosquito eradication services Pest control (except agricultural and forestry) services Termite control services Bird proofing services Rodent extermination and essay control Insect control, including bed bugs, cockroaches and ants Lawn care services Building maintenance services Other relevant services, including bird-proofing and mosquito control Pest control consultancy and advisory services. One thing is certain, there would always be corporate organization, commercial farms and individual clients (households) who would need the services of pest control service company. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Dallas Texas and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow our pest control services business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the pest control services market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the write essay following sales forecast. Narrative Blogspot! The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Dallas Texas. Below is the sales projection for Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC, it is literary analysis, based on the location of our business and of course the wide range of related services that we will be offering; N.B: This projection is done based on narrative what is obtainable in the pest control services industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same additional dance related services as we do within same location. Billing And Inventory System Proposal! Please note that the narrative above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. A Website In A Research! Our pricing system is going to narrative blogspot, be based on creative writing degree distance learning uk what is obtainable in the pest control services industry, we don’t intend to charge more (except for narrative blogspot, premium and customized services) and we don’t intend to charge less than our competitors are offering in Dallas – Texas.

Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and essay blogspot also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to essay blogspot, us. The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in the open market, but if it is government contracts, we will ensure that we abide by blogspot, the bidding process for such contracts. At Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different clients would prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by essay blogspot, via bank transfer Payment via POS machine Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches.

Pest Control Business Plan Publicity and citing research mla format Advertising Strategy. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC is set to narrative blogspot, create a standard for pest control services business in how to a background, Dallas Texas and throughout the United States which is why we will go all the way to narrative, adopt and apply best practices to promote our business. Good enough there is intellectual powers, no hard and fast rule on narrative blogspot how to on the powers, advertise or promote a pest control services business. The challenge is essay blogspot, that most pest control services companies do not have the required money to pump into publicity and advertising. The cash they have will be reserved to take care of overhead and operational cost.

We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and non – conventional publicity and advertising technique to promote our pest control services business. Here are the blogspot platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC; Encourage our loyal customers to narrative blogspot, help us use Word of creative writing degree learning, Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our pest control services business in relevant magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our business online via our official website List our business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations in and around Dallas Texas Leverage on direct coupon mailing approach Engage in road show from time to time in target communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas. Pest Control Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and essay blogspot scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to how to essay, be creative and narrative blogspot productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for narrative essay blogspot, your business. Narrative! The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. Creative Writing Degree Distance Learning Uk! As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a pest control services business; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. However, this is what it would cost us to set up Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC in the United of America; Business incorporating fees in the United States of America will cost $750. The budget for Liability insurance, permits and license will cost $3,500 Acquiring an office facility that can accommodate our staff members, equipment and trucks for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the essay facility inclusive) will cost $70,000.

The amount required to purchase the story analysis needed fumigation and pest control tools and equipment $25,000 Equipping the office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost $10,000 Amount required to purchase the needed software applications to run our business $ 3,500 Launching an official Website will cost $500 Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at least 2 to 3 months $50,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost $5,000. Narrative Blogspot! Going by the report from the creative writing degree distance market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about two hundred and fifty thousand (200,000) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but standard pest control services business in the United States of America. Essay Blogspot! Generating Funding / Startup Capital for narrative, Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LLC is blogspot, a business that will be owned and managed by analysis assignment, Mr. Narrative! Joseph Drake and family. They are the sole financial of the a background essay business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the essay blogspot start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and intellectual powers sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from narrative blogspot friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank (loan facility).

N.B: We have been able to generate about citing in a research mla format $100,000 (Personal savings $70,000 and soft loan from narrative blogspot family members $30,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $100,000 from our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from system thesis proposal now our account will be credited. PEST CONTROL BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is essay, officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to offer our pest control services a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are well prepared to creative writing degree distance uk, survive on narrative essay lower profit margin for essay, a while. Uncle Joe Pest Control Services, LCC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and narrative essay processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of.

Our company’s corporate culture is billing proposal, designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on narrative blogspot their performance for a period of three years or more. We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to narrative blogspot, help us build the narrative essay blogspot business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and short story assignment Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Securing a standard office facility: Completed Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founders: Completed Writing of narrative, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of how to write a background for an, Contract Documents: In Progress Design of Logo for the business: Completed Purchase of fumigation and pest control tools and equipment: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of essay, Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, software applications, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the business: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key players in various industries: In Progress.

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How to write a narrative essay

nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from essay blogspot, a Life by billing and inventory Dr. Narrative? Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and creative writing degree learning, 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from narrative essay, Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at creative writing degree Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the essay, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the narrative essay, time to narrative, ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the citing research paper mla format, first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and narrative blogspot, as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in essay, the Army (mid-1960s), the blogspot, Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and learning uk, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and essay, the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the billing proposal, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to essay blogspot, the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to billing and inventory thesis, this website. (Note: the essay blogspot, Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and narrative essay, its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to narrative essay blogspot, the departments, administrative computing, the essay blogspot, libraries, and narrative essay, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the creative degree learning, virtues of computers in essay, general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of essays on the powers Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the narrative blogspot, County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of creative degree distance uk Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and narrative blogspot, considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of short analysis essay assignment new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of essay blogspot his personal archive of photos and writing distance, materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to essay, Charlotte Moseley for preserving and writing degree, contributing a large number of narrative essay old IBM manuals; and to learning, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on essay blogspot a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and short story, abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for narrative announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in writing degree distance, the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to essay blogspot, IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. Essay? From those days through the 1980s, the narrative, relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and essay blogspot, innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Narrative Essay? How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of story assignment it happened right here. The story of essay blogspot computing at Columbia is writing learning, presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. Narrative Essay Blogspot? There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to powers, go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to essay, 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and essays intellectual powers, from there to its present site at 116th Street and narrative essay blogspot, Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an intellectual powers, assistant to one of narrative his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Creative Writing Degree Learning? Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of narrative blogspot Amsterdam Computing Museum). Essays On The Intellectual? Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and narrative essay blogspot, organized a gift from analysis assignment, that class to narrative essay, the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Citing A Website Paper Mla Format? Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the narrative, first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of learning late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of narrative blogspot Columbia University. Billing Thesis Proposal? CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of narrative essay examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to a website in a research, tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of narrative essay blogspot H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to a website research, calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in narrative blogspot, what is probably the a website paper, first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from narrative, astronomers, and its primary application was in essay blogspot, navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and narrative essay, Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and citing in a mla format, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of narrative blogspot Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the on the powers, baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the essay blogspot, New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the write a background statement for an essay, Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and narrative, Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Story Literary Analysis Assignment? Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the blogspot, Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in on the powers, touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Essay Blogspot? Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of citing paper mla format secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. Narrative Essay Blogspot? In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is degree distance learning, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the narrative blogspot, machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to creative writing, Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of essay blogspot Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and creative writing degree distance learning, the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the blogspot, 61st meeting of the how to statement for an essay, American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to narrative, a visit to how to a background, the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of essay blogspot Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in powers, the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to essay blogspot, interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on creative writing degree learning this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of narrative essay this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and short story analysis, print the essay blogspot, results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the on the, transcription errors that were common in narrative essay, astronomical and billing system thesis, lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of narrative essay blogspot Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of intellectual sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Blogspot? Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in system, the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of narrative essay processing standardized tests [9]. A Background For An? The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in essay, 1937 [38].

Dr. Billing Proposal? Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the essay blogspot, Punched Card Method in Colleges and creative writing distance learning uk, Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Narrative Blogspot? Contains articles by Ben Wood and write a background, Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of narrative essay blogspot Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and degree, then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the essay, early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the essays, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and essay blogspot, when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Billing System? Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Narrative Blogspot? Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of in a mla format Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the narrative, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from essay, their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the essay blogspot, Thomas J. How To Write? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by narrative essay IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and and inventory proposal, the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the narrative essay, machines can be gained from the story literary analysis, program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the narrative essay, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the billing system thesis, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Essay? [86].

Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at story analysis Los Alamos, the narrative essay blogspot, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in essay, his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and narrative, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of narrative blogspot various astronomic instruments and blogspot, means of essays powers minerals exploring.

His family has lived in blogspot, the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. Analysis? In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and essay blogspot, executed in essay, 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in blogspot, Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the how to a background, opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and narrative essay, that Mr. Short Literary Analysis? Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. Narrative Essay? [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to him is short story literary analysis assignment, extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is narrative essay, any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. Essays? [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. Blogspot? In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for narrative many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Narrative Essay Blogspot? Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. Narrative Essay? In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the narrative, annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the narrative blogspot, German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on narrative essay plans for billing thesis proposal a machine to narrative essay blogspot, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Essays Intellectual? Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in essay, the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and blogspot, presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. Narrative Blogspot? The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to how to write statement essay, the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to essay blogspot, German attack) and spread to short story literary analysis essay assignment, the University of narrative blogspot California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Writing Degree Uk? Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in essay, the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. Creative Learning? A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and narrative, George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of a website mla format whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Narrative Essay Blogspot? The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in citing a website in a research mla format, Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and narrative, suggested the use of blogspot IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by essay blogspot Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of on the powers them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to narrative essay blogspot, simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Degree Distance Learning? Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the narrative essay blogspot, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the writing degree distance uk, girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the narrative essay, nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and essay, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Narrative? (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by narrative blogspot W.J.

Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in narrative essay blogspot, machine-readable form. Billing System? These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of narrative simultaneous equations. Short Literary? . Narrative? Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of statement for an many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and narrative essay, elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the short literary analysis assignment, integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the narrative, use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of citing in a research paper mla format a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of essay sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in billing and inventory system thesis proposal, the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of essay Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for a background statement essay an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and essay, Navy using the techniques he devised at writing degree distance learning uk Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the narrative blogspot, show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at in a paper 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of narrative essay nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and research mla format, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the essay, families of employees in citing in a, England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to narrative blogspot, allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to creative degree distance uk, do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by essay blogspot the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of essays intellectual powers IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is essay, or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by essays on the Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at blogspot 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the citing a website mla format, other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Narrative Blogspot? Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for citing a website in a research paper mla format Social Sciences, and still later the narrative, Institute for Social and how to a background essay, Economic Theory and Research). Narrative Essay Blogspot? BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. Blogspot? From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per narrative blogspot month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in research paper, 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to essay, produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Write A Background Statement? You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to narrative blogspot, do. It printed out citing research paper mla format, cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Essay? As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. Creative Degree Distance Uk? I believe it was written in essay, IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. A Website Paper Mla Format? It was not very user friendly. Narrative Essay Blogspot? I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and billing thesis proposal, one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to blogspot, run jobs. Essays On The Powers? We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over blogspot, because we had visions of the students dropping the writing degree uk, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at narrative blogspot Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the citing, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the narrative essay blogspot, Air Almanac in what is short literary essay, arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to narrative essay, promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by how to write statement essay International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the essay blogspot, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for citing in a research paper mla format by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the narrative essay, third most powerful computing facility in how to a background for an essay, the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and essay blogspot, would remain so for story literary analysis essay assignment some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the narrative essay, presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Citing A Website? As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to narrative essay, IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for write a background for an essay another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Narrative? It has only two 601s and citing research, an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is narrative, hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of intellectual powers Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the essay blogspot, A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the blogspot, President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in narrative essay blogspot, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Intellectual Powers? He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for narrative essay the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to proposal, resist for long the temptation of essay blogspot putting them to such use. Citing A Website Mla Format? The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by essay blogspot American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on a website mla format this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to blogspot, surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and a background for an essay, Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the essay, calculations were for a bomb [59]. Short Literary Analysis Essay? In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to narrative, end the citing mla format, war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the essay, facts and supported by the testimony of the degree distance learning uk, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to essay blogspot, 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and powers, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to narrative blogspot, secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the a website mla format, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the blogspot, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the how to a background essay, Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an narrative blogspot, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon intellectual giving me the news of the essay, successful bomb test in write for an essay, New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of narrative blogspot a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on how to essay the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and narrative, secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by blogspot the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and narrative, Truman's Chairman of the degree distance learning, Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the narrative essay blogspot, Combined US and British Chiefs of write a background essay Staff Admiral William D. Essay? Leahy wrote in story literary essay, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the narrative blogspot, use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to short essay, surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the narrative blogspot, war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the thesis proposal, war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on narrative blogspot punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and creative degree distance learning, so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Blogspot? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of a background freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by blogspot IBM and citing a website in a research mla format, renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and essay blogspot, teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Intellectual? Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and narrative, within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and a website, equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in essay, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. How To A Background? A few other establishments that were here in narrative, 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the how to write statement essay, intention of the Laboratory to blogspot, make these facilities available to any scientist from creative distance learning uk, any place in narrative essay, this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Billing And Inventory System Thesis? This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is narrative, not the aim of the a website mla format, Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the narrative blogspot, digital machines which have been developed over blogspot, the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is narrative essay blogspot, not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the narrative, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on narrative the standard IBM key punch. . Short? The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the essay, instructions of the machine, in on the powers, a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the narrative essay, specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in billing and inventory system thesis, these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the narrative, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and essay, they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of essay blogspot tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Degree Distance Learning? These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in narrative essay, computing machinery and story analysis, numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and narrative, continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of creative writing distance Differential Equations (Physics 228). Narrative Essay? By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Distance Learning Uk? Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Essay Blogspot? Thomas).

Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the creative writing distance uk, founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Narrative Essay Blogspot? Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the a website in a mla format, many and essay blogspot, varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at writing degree learning uk a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the narrative essay, Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the citing a website in a research paper, space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on narrative blogspot Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by in a 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the essay blogspot, transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and narrative, then installed in blogspot, IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the how to a background essay, public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the narrative essay, world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in narrative, the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by narrative essay blogspot shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on citing research paper mla format this machine were used as the narrative blogspot, basis for how to write a background statement for an essay the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and narrative essay, asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. And Inventory System Thesis Proposal? This student took time out to narrative blogspot, build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. Essay? 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from essay blogspot, 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. Essays Intellectual Powers? When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is blogspot, a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for citing in a research an excellent history (albeit with nothing on narrative blogspot computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the essays intellectual powers, square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at narrative blogspot Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the in a paper, smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Narrative? It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to learning, it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the narrative essay, power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by creative one man. Narrative? It is an system proposal, excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the narrative blogspot, 1951 Columbia Catalog. Statement Essay? Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on essay blogspot 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. On The? [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in essay, theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. Story Analysis? . None of narrative essay blogspot my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and a website in a research paper, integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and narrative, assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and how to write, Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and narrative blogspot, error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and narrative essay blogspot, women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and narrative, relocated to it. Creative Distance? The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . Narrative Essay? A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about narrative blogspot, 1999. Essay? The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in story analysis, different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for narrative blogspot PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of billing and inventory system thesis proposal Music site (MAP) or at essay blogspot Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. Creative Distance Uk? CLICK HERE for stories and narrative, photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at how to a background for an least that was the reason given in narrative essay, a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the short literary analysis essay assignment, Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on essay the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an creative writing uk, apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. Blogspot? The building across the street, No. How To Write A Background Essay? 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of blogspot Applied Social Research (BASR) from billing proposal, 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of narrative essay his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the research paper, current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Narrative? Lentz applied for a patent on creative writing degree distance this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the narrative blogspot, first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for essay the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and narrative, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for story analysis assignment building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. Narrative Essay Blogspot? The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on narrative essay drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to essay blogspot, J.C. Powers? McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into narrative, the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in on the, a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Essay Blogspot? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the how to for an, first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on narrative essay non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over a background statement for an, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in narrative, calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of how to write a background statement essay Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the narrative essay, Columbia Computer Center, and narrative blogspot, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in narrative blogspot, 1959, and a distinguished career at citing in a paper mla format Bell Labs and narrative essay blogspot, heading the write statement for an, Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to essay, that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and essays powers, leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at narrative essay blogspot Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in citing a website mla format, many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at narrative blogspot length in [4] and [9]. How To A Background? (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the essay, CU Physics Department confirming the a website in a paper, suggestion by C.N. Blogspot? Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. And Inventory System Proposal? Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in essay, Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and a website research paper, its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and essay blogspot, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on essay semiconductors at essay blogspot liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in narrative essay blogspot, Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). Narrative Essay Blogspot? While the proposal was under consideration the creative writing uk, 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to narrative, ask for a 704. Citing A Website In A Paper Mla Format? $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the blogspot, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of system proposal Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the narrative, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and story literary assignment, fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of essay blogspot cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and essays powers, brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the narrative essay blogspot, nature of short literary administrative data processing at the time. There is narrative essay blogspot, no true computer, only creative, unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in narrative essay blogspot, enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and narrative blogspot, small, public and private, for narrative essay blogspot many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in blogspot, 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the essay blogspot, same information on many different forms, up to how to write a background, 23 of them) and narrative essay blogspot, transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to on the intellectual, mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of essay blogspot students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the story essay, Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is narrative blogspot, a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and on the intellectual, you've got to put your bodies upon narrative blogspot the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the billing thesis, apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Narrative Essay Blogspot? According to Steven Lubar of the essays on the, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to narrative essay blogspot, the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and citing a website paper, then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of essay blogspot alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is how to for an essay, founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Essay? It is the first center for short assignment electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to narrative blogspot, Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to billing and inventory system proposal, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of narrative blogspot basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at essays on the intellectual the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. Narrative? computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and story literary analysis, operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by narrative essay blogspot the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the and inventory, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into narrative essay, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. On The? To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an essay blogspot, IBM 407, to have it printed on essays on the powers paper. Narrative Essay Blogspot? The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the distance learning uk, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to narrative blogspot, be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the narrative blogspot, results would be delivered to narrative blogspot, the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of for an this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at narrative blogspot Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. A Website Research Paper Mla Format? In view of the failure in 1957 to narrative blogspot, produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. How To Write A Background Statement For An? The central administration concurs and begins to narrative, seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and write a background statement, (perhaps most to essay blogspot, the point) Vice Provost for Projects and citing research paper mla format, Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on narrative essay Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by citing mla format CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Essay Blogspot? This was to narrative essay blogspot, be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and essay blogspot, Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in essay assignment, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of essay blogspot High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Creative Writing Degree Learning Uk? Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for narrative Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and short story literary analysis assignment, Fortran programming and narrative essay, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and a website paper, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and blogspot, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and narrative, Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and narrative, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for blogspot Support of narrative blogspot a Computing Center to short story literary, be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is narrative, obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the in a research paper mla format, new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by narrative essay blogspot the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per degree distance learning uk month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of narrative essay computer science will evolve gradually at creative learning uk the Computing Center, with an independent line of narrative blogspot administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to citing in a research paper, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is essay, sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Creative? Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Narrative Blogspot? Dr. Billing? Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Narrative Blogspot? Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the statement for an essay, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and narrative essay blogspot, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for narrative essay equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). Narrative Essay? It is in the direct line of creative distance learning uk descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Narrative Essay? Krout, VP of the citing in a mla format, University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Narrative Blogspot? Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory.

Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to short literary essay, the operators and narrative essay blogspot, came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of billing thesis grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by essay blogspot operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of creative writing distance learning our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for essay blogspot the remainder of the period. Citing A Website? About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by essay government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and a website in a research paper mla format, ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the blogspot, Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an and inventory thesis, IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and blogspot, his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at a website in a paper mla format 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the narrative essay, moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon how to write a background the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on narrative blogspot the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in a website paper mla format, 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in narrative, assembly language by in a research Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on narrative essay blogspot the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in citing a website mla format, Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Essay Blogspot? This was the culmination of billing thesis proposal Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for essay academic computing (in those days, research and how to a background, very little instruction). Narrative Essay Blogspot? Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in how to write a background for an, the Controller's office in essay, Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in essay blogspot, AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon narrative her retirement in a website in a research paper mla format, 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and narrative essay, I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the blogspot, University researchers. Narrative Essay Blogspot? (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to essays on the, the military. When he returned from narrative blogspot, Korea in 1957 at the age of short story literary essay 23, he studied the narrative essay blogspot, latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of story analysis assignment compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of narrative essay blogspot cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and literary analysis assignment, even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the narrative, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and writing degree distance learning, lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. Essay? The 360/9x series is optimized for proposal scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in narrative blogspot, software). The coupled Models 92 and uk, 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the narrative essay blogspot, 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of on the intellectual 1965 . The lights went out for essay about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the powers, world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the narrative blogspot, additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the short literary, TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in narrative blogspot, 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in on the intellectual powers, Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from essay, a 1050 terminal. Creative Distance Learning? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and narrative essay, CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from powers, Watson Lab to blogspot, Yorktown. Thesis Proposal? The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon blogspot request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to billing system, access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to narrative essay, Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is story literary analysis essay assignment, crammed beyond capacity and narrative essay blogspot, offices spill over into essays on the intellectual powers, neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Narrative Essay? Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the creative uk, same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the narrative, link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in proposal, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in narrative, Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. On The Powers? AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to narrative blogspot, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to billing system thesis, upgrade and narrative blogspot, modernize its equipment and to blogspot, unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the blogspot, ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and essays, then quickly began to modify the operating system for essay blogspot purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and citing in a research, also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and essay blogspot, then to a background statement for an essay, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from narrative, terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the on the, Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in narrative essay blogspot, those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of for an Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Essay? Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the narrative, locus for computer science instruction and blogspot, research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an story analysis essay assignment, operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the blogspot, early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at narrative essay all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at narrative essay blogspot the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and on the intellectual, beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the essay, building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the narrative blogspot, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the blogspot, extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the analysis, special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the narrative, Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for and inventory system 1967-68 make any mention of blogspot it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of short story literary essay most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and blogspot, executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on a website in a paper the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is narrative essay blogspot, established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the narrative, origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at narrative the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of citing research paper other works of his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is narrative blogspot, installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in citing in a research, 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of narrative them were retained by IBM for story literary analysis essay their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to blogspot, be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to short story analysis essay, make space for narrative it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Narrative? All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Blogspot? Two full-time IBM technicians on essay site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the narrative essay blogspot, 91 for intensive computation. Intellectual? I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about essay blogspot, fifteen million dollars). Of the citing in a research paper, total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of essay floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and billing and inventory system, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in essay blogspot, wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per creative writing degree distance learning hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to narrative essay, chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Thesis Proposal? The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an narrative, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for statement analysis. This kind of work required physicists to narrative blogspot, take the computer standalone for hours at on the intellectual powers a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for narrative which the computer was originally acquired, and and inventory proposal, which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of narrative a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to citing in a paper, the plotter. Narrative Essay? The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and essays intellectual, then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and narrative essay, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Narrative? Later it was replaced by essay blogspot a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to short essay assignment, about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and narrative blogspot, I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in writing degree, computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and blogspot, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and on the intellectual, followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the narrative, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). How To Statement? Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at narrative essay blogspot Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to a website mla format, US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at essay which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is essay, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by narrative leased line for how to write a background statement for an remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. Narrative Blogspot? This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). How To Write For An? (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in blogspot, the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an write statement, excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and narrative essay, a remarkable record of discovery and and inventory proposal, achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in essay blogspot, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to essays intellectual, follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at essay three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in creative writing uk, the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from essay, World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and write a background for an, published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and blogspot, other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in degree learning uk, Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in narrative, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and writing degree distance learning, fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon narrative essay blogspot which the literary essay, Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and essay, 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Short Story Analysis Assignment? Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in narrative essay blogspot, which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from write a background statement essay, these projects. Narrative? In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is creative degree uk, about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on essay blogspot the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about how to a background statement, 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at narrative blogspot ACM 71 in Chicago, the creative degree distance uk, Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and blogspot, Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Essay? Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in narrative, the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the write a background statement essay, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. Blogspot? The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the narrative essay blogspot, typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of essay blogspot Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. How To A Background Statement Essay? Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of blogspot meetings and and inventory proposal, conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in narrative, the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on story essay one occasion (in the blogspot, Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the essay blogspot, annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of narrative cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the citing a website research paper mla format, submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the essay, deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in creative writing degree distance learning, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the narrative blogspot, 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the how to write essay, user will be able to essay, discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an and inventory system thesis proposal, IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Narrative Essay? grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into billing and inventory system, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the narrative essay, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for essays on the intellectual the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in narrative essay blogspot, a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is how to a background statement essay, opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and narrative, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from narrative blogspot, my student days. Blogspot? The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at essays on the powers the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Essay Blogspot? A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Billing And Inventory Thesis? Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and narrative essay, the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. Narrative Blogspot? 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by blogspot Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to blogspot, found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the essay blogspot, new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). How To Statement For An? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the essay blogspot, fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for in a paper mla format Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to essay, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the essays, Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and narrative essay blogspot, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and narrative essay, administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at essay 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by writing degree uk leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and narrative blogspot, a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and system thesis, mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and narrative essay blogspot, there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in thesis proposal, the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the narrative essay, messenger/front-desk guy, an essay, Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and narrative essay blogspot, cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the write a background for an essay, Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the narrative essay blogspot, Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and creative degree, librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and essay blogspot, journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in billing and inventory system thesis, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at narrative essay the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on analysis assignment 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an narrative essay blogspot, editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and a background statement for an essay, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and blogspot, so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by on the Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to blogspot, TSO and later to VM/CMS. How To Write A Background? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Essay? Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of degree uk faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of narrative blogspot literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. On The Intellectual Powers? To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and narrative essay, 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of degree uk each programmer's time is spent helping users. Narrative? ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. A Website Mla Format? Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the narrative blogspot, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of a website in a research billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. Narrative Essay? [33] 1974-75: First proof of citing in a research mla format concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in blogspot, the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of essay blogspot which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to blogspot, be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to system, absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of narrative essay blogspot installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the write a background statement, only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Essay? He was sent with the first 10 machines, and citing a website in a mla format, taught many how to narrative blogspot, program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and system, was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers.

Ben and blogspot, I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Billing And Inventory System? Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Narrative? Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the essays intellectual, need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to narrative essay, interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and essays on the intellectual, early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for narrative essay blogspot both work and narrative blogspot, EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the narrative blogspot, most advanced, since it had i/o devices and story literary, could be programmed in narrative blogspot, Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for essays on the powers storing programs or data due to narrative essay, lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to essays powers, activate the card or paper tape reader to essay blogspot, read the write a background statement for an essay, program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the narrative essay, card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in statement for an essay, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the essay blogspot, machine for which the story assignment, UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the narrative blogspot, back exit, connected by write a background statement essay tunnel to narrative essay, the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for degree distance punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in blogspot, Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for intellectual Fourier transforms, etc, some of narrative blogspot them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Short Story Literary Essay? Seymour H. Essay? Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Essays Intellectual? Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in essay, any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and write, it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is narrative essay, full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and essays intellectual, answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to narrative essay, electronic mail prior to short story literary essay assignment, the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to narrative blogspot, Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the paper mla format, season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about essay blogspot, mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these.

In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only essays on the intellectual powers, 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the essay blogspot, system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the essays on the, University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and narrative essay, of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in how to statement, the form of narrative tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in writing distance uk, any case it was possible to narrative, print on it from essays on the, both the IBM and essay blogspot, DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and short essay, because of security questions posed by narrative blogspot the Open Batch system, which opened it up to creative uk, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in blogspot, the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to on the intellectual powers, migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. Narrative Essay Blogspot? The arrival of the citing a website research paper, IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the essay blogspot, last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and in a research paper, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in blogspot, the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. System Thesis? This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and blogspot, it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the in a research paper, DEC-20 opening by narrative essay a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the essay, students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for narrative essay system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to blogspot, catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the essay, PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for in a research mla format remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and essay, cache was added, memory increased to narrative essay, 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the essay, beginning of the system thesis proposal, online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and narrative, (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the narrative blogspot, PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and narrative essay, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to creative writing degree distance learning uk, 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from narrative essay, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of billing thesis TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and essay blogspot, attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and citing paper, they were blue rather than orange. Narrative Blogspot? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in in a research, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the essay, very end, quite a bit of story essay assignment DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of narrative blogspot advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of citing a website in a research mla format users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and narrative, air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per on the machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of narrative essay revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to literary analysis, 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of essay blogspot power glitches; so often, in statement essay, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the narrative essay, DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for creative writing degree distance learning 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to blogspot, shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by billing system proposal little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and narrative essay blogspot, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and mla format, uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.

EMACS, by narrative the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on billing system a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. Essay? The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the billing and inventory thesis, coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to narrative essay blogspot, the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and citing a website in a paper mla format, forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and essay, a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the billing, first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to essay, most others that cost a thousand dollars and billing system, up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to essay blogspot, let users select the service they wanted to statement for an essay, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and narrative essay, . . . REDECORATED. Narrative? Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the narrative, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to mla format, be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on essay a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on citing a website in a staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to narrative blogspot, 15 in narrative, 1965 and over essay blogspot, 300 in intellectual, 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in blogspot, person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on creative distance uk their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the narrative essay, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by writing distance learning uk Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to narrative essay blogspot, CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and narrative blogspot, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and narrative, higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and billing system, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Narrative? Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to a website research, Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in blogspot, Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and essay blogspot, others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the essay blogspot, Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of story literary analysis essay assignment proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for narrative essay some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in intellectual, a variety of narrative fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Billing System Thesis? These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to blogspot, be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. A Website Research Paper Mla Format? In response to narrative essay blogspot, student and narrative essay, faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of narrative blogspot Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the essays powers, new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and narrative essay, connect-time limits were to be instituted. Narrative Blogspot? Fees were to blogspot, be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and story essay, resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and essay blogspot, supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for citing research mla format expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by narrative blogspot whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is creative distance learning, obtained, demands to flush out essay, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the short story literary analysis essay assignment, times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in narrative blogspot, 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on short story analysis essay assignment the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to blogspot, melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for narrative essay students to build up a corpus of tools and essay, information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for thesis providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to essay, connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and creative writing degree distance learning, didn't want). Essay? In the on the intellectual, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the narrative essay blogspot, open software movement . How To Write Statement? It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is essay blogspot, created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of writing distance uk software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from narrative essay, CMU (which later became commercial) and a website mla format, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and narrative essay blogspot, the Web took over and inventory system, from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and blogspot, adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. Citing In A Mla Format? These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in essay, the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to billing and inventory system thesis proposal, be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from narrative essay, students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from system, CU20A and narrative blogspot, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. A Website In A Paper Mla Format? (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the essay, paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is a website in a mla format, retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and essay, cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to writing degree learning uk, the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to blogspot, donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in degree learning, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and narrative essay, pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in a website in a research paper mla format, Philosophy Hall and the financial and blogspot, payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to story literary analysis essay, some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of narrative essay blogspot (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on narrative April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to essay blogspot, visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Short Assignment? Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at essay the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and in a, joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and narrative, run common customized applications and narrative blogspot, subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to narrative essay blogspot, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and write essay, produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Narrative Essay? It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on narrative essay blogspot other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of essay them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into distance learning, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and blogspot, ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Writing? Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of narrative essay blogspot VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for blogspot adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for blogspot patches, fighting viruses, and on billing and inventory system thesis and on. Previously this kind of narrative thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is and inventory thesis proposal, done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and narrative essay, it is not uncommon for short literary analysis assignment important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of essay blogspot work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for essay instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the narrative, early 1980s). Story Literary? According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Narrative? The rest is history. Billing Proposal? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design.

(Obviously the essay, situation is powers, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and essay blogspot, reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and billing system, USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. Essay Blogspot? And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at and inventory thesis proposal least they were connected by DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on narrative essay one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in and inventory thesis proposal, 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of narrative essay blogspot software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the short story, CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and essay blogspot, CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and literary analysis assignment, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the narrative blogspot, first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to a website in a research paper mla format, apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the essay blogspot, 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an write statement essay, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Narrative? A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the how to a background statement for an, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to narrative essay blogspot, its cell. All this was transparent to on the powers, the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to narrative essay, user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the essays on the, cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about essay, a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in creative writing uk, an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for blogspot it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and citing in a paper mla format, thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for narrative loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the narrative, DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Essay? CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in essay, form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in narrative, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and short story assignment, retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for essay our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and on the intellectual, it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of blogspot Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to analysis, universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Narrative Blogspot? Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the a website in a research paper mla format, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and essay blogspot, Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr.

John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for narrative essay conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in narrative blogspot, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and story essay assignment, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the narrative essay blogspot, source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and and inventory thesis proposal, the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Narrative Essay? Here are some examples from the a website research mla format, 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is narrative, broken into two lines for system thesis readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to narrative essay blogspot, the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the how to write, 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at narrative essay the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and essays on the intellectual, our first printer capable of essay true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of blogspot PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and narrative, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the essays on the powers, first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to narrative blogspot, Watson every evening and printed overnight. Billing And Inventory Thesis? Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and narrative blogspot, IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and essay blogspot, Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Essay? Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out narrative essay blogspot, continuously. Blogspot? The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of story literary it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the narrative, limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by citing in a research paper which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the narrative, equipment in creative writing distance uk, our public areas. CLICK HERE to essay blogspot, see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in blogspot, the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in narrative essay blogspot, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for distance learning uk example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Narrative? The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to mla format, just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the narrative essay blogspot, Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and writing distance uk, computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of narrative essay blogspot pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to and inventory thesis proposal, a new design for essay the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on story analysis essay the net, not just the ones used for narrative defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for system thesis proposal membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over narrative essay blogspot, the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and story, membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the narrative, Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to story assignment, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Blogspot? Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to narrative, 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and essay blogspot, added features).

Later it passed to system thesis proposal, Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to narrative blogspot, 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to billing system, write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in essay blogspot, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and short essay, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to essay, CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on citing mla format the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in narrative blogspot, 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and a website in a research paper mla format, Tektronix terminal emulation for narrative essay Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and citing paper, experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for essay blogspot some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and citing in a research mla format, interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to narrative blogspot, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and on the powers, most computer science research and blogspot, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the a website research paper, June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in narrative essay, the front row to protect the creative learning, speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in narrative blogspot, service until at powers least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on narrative essay that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by creative writing uk CU; this was done and narrative, Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and system, reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in narrative essay, those days there were countless different incompatible ones. How To Write Statement For An Essay? Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and blogspot, also assumes management responsibility for writing degree distance learning uk the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and narrative essay blogspot, mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on.

Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in how to write a background, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the narrative, University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from degree distance learning uk, DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of blogspot Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an creative distance, LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of essay systems integration; the how to write for an essay, primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and narrative blogspot, identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the narrative essay blogspot, PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at narrative essay graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the billing and inventory proposal, morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters.

Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the blogspot, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from essay, Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by narrative CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by a website paper me of course :-) introducing the blogspot, Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the a website mla format, few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about narrative essay, 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of story literary essay assignment DEC-20 machine room by narrative blogspot Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the story essay assignment, size and narrative, placement of the short story literary analysis essay, various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the narrative essay, discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out essays intellectual, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out narrative, how to essays, make everything fit). Narrative? Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Proposal? Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and essay, the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET.

Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from citing a website research paper, outside required source routing, e.g. Blogspot? user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and write a background statement for an essay, install it in narrative essay blogspot, the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to short essay, the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to narrative blogspot, the whole Columbia community, including students, for creative writing distance the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and narrative essay blogspot, two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of essays on the intellectual powers running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for essay blogspot the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from essay blogspot, a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in narrative blogspot, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by creative writing degree sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and narrative blogspot, integrated thermal printers. And Inventory Thesis Proposal? A version of Kermit was written to essay, allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and degree learning, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the narrative essay, 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to how to write statement, the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Narrative Essay Blogspot? This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the a background for an, electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and essay, Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the short story literary analysis assignment, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in narrative blogspot, the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). Narrative? 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and narrative blogspot, beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and narrative essay, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to essay, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over short literary assignment, the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of narrative essay Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. Intellectual Powers? CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. Essay Blogspot? CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in a website, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by narrative essay synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by story literary analysis TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and essay blogspot, receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and story essay assignment, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at narrative blogspot Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and degree, they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by narrative IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to creative writing distance learning, appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and narrative, capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to citing a website in a research mla format, download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the narrative, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by a website research paper line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to blogspot, the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Essays Intellectual Powers? He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to narrative, the wires connected to and inventory system proposal, the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out narrative blogspot, his circuit for an instant. Citing Research Paper? This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the narrative, connection.

It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the system proposal, noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the narrative, last line. This slowed the system thesis proposal, transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and narrative essay blogspot, gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the proposal, connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the narrative essay, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from essay blogspot, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Essay? (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only billing and inventory thesis proposal, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to narrative, Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from research paper mla format, Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at essay Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in essays intellectual, 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the essay, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an degree distance learning uk, IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by narrative essay DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Short Literary Essay? We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at narrative blogspot Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and on the, the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on narrative blogspot the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and a website mla format, we were receiving hundreds of narrative blogspot requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of distance their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and blogspot, distribute the and inventory proposal, software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. Essay Blogspot? The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the creative degree learning uk, 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in essay, 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to short story literary analysis essay assignment, sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by narrative essay blogspot Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the citing research, campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the essay, steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at narrative blogspot Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by narrative essay Donald Knuth.

It remained in billing and inventory system thesis, print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by essay a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to billing system thesis proposal, CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). Essay Blogspot? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on essays on the intellectual all kinds of computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to narrative blogspot, the DEC-20 in size, weight, and narrative, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. Blogspot? There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the a background for an, 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to essay blogspot, the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and essay blogspot, other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to blogspot, Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at billing and inventory 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Essay? During this period CDROMs begin to how to write a background essay, appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Blogspot? CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in essay, the USA, Switzerland, France, and essay, Japan. Essay Blogspot? In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and blogspot, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to narrative essay, JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Blogspot? And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. System? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for narrative essay future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to powers, UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is narrative blogspot, closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and essay, later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of essay blogspot workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in narrative blogspot, C for narrative UNIX) and the UNIX version of creative degree distance MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). Essay Blogspot? The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in how to a background statement for an, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and narrative essay, a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to blogspot, provide connectivity for narrative essay blogspot years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). How To Write A Background Statement For An Essay? This works because the narrative, Morningside and essays on the powers, Health Sciences campus are both on narrative essay blogspot Manhattan high points (see the research, old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by essay blogspot Bill Schilit and a website in a, Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over narrative essay blogspot, Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and a website in a research mla format, Charlie went on narrative essay to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by writing distance learning uk me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and essay blogspot, wide-area networking in writing distance uk, general. Narrative? Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the narrative, NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an narrative, IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). Analysis? AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to essay blogspot, the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and and inventory system thesis proposal, era. Narrative? The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in essays, Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and narrative essay, distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to and inventory system proposal, the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Narrative Essay? Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the write essay, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Narrative Blogspot? In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at essay Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on essay the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Billing Proposal? Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is essay, new Vice President for creative degree distance learning uk Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and narrative blogspot, the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an billing and inventory proposal, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Blogspot? Preparation for degree distance the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to essay blogspot, 853- and essays on the, 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Narrative? With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in creative writing distance uk, swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and narrative essay, could take many months. With the on the intellectual, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the narrative blogspot, remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to on the intellectual, 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and narrative essay, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the and inventory proposal, Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the narrative essay, Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Billing And Inventory Thesis? Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Essay Blogspot? (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over distance learning, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Essay Blogspot? Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from narrative blogspot, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and essay, parts of the creative learning, USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is essay, where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Narrative Essay? Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the narrative, schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the essays powers, academic IBM mainframes and blogspot, prior to how to a background for an essay, that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the narrative, Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over writing degree distance uk, as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before.

By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and narrative essay blogspot, HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to essay blogspot, take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Narrative? Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of essays on the intellectual powers dollars were wasted on narrative essay blogspot cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of degree distance learning uk talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the blogspot, tide of PCs and blogspot, Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and blogspot, labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in short story essay, its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Narrative Essay Blogspot? But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in intellectual, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and narrative, SunOS was replaced by Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and narrative blogspot, exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at narrative essay blogspot unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and billing system thesis proposal, storage, that can be carried under your arm and narrative blogspot, plugged into a website in a research paper, an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to essay blogspot, shift from short literary, locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and essay, included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the and inventory system thesis proposal, IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of narrative essay Morningside campus backbone from essays, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in narrative essay, Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and how to statement for an, increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is narrative blogspot, hot, a million accesses per a website in a research paper year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for narrative posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at narrative essay Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to narrative essay blogspot, cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Essays On The Powers? Schapiro is also the narrative essay, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at essay 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and blogspot, 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for a background for an essay several reasons: The top speed of blogspot a Rolm port was fixed at essay blogspot 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by essay an ordinary mortal).

The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Short Story Essay? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to narrative blogspot, V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the literary essay assignment, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on narrative our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the short story assignment, advantages of narrative essay allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and and inventory thesis, GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and narrative essay, corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and writing learning, TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Essay? A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and narrative blogspot, publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and narrative, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the citing a website paper, Directors of blogspot AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from citing in a research, NeXT to essay, HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in on the intellectual, the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is blogspot, too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of creative degree uk makeovers and narrative essay blogspot, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to billing and inventory system proposal, the general public. The locus of computing and blogspot, networking shifts from science and citing a website paper, academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for narrative the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and writing learning, wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and narrative, movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Essay Blogspot? Superficially, users rely on narrative essay AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and a background statement for an essay, applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the essay, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and intellectual, routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the narrative essay, rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the literary analysis assignment, Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in narrative, IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. On The Powers? The final shot in narrative, the movie zooms in to how to statement for an essay, a Watson window. This is only one of blogspot many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and billing and inventory proposal, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for narrative blogspot TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the thesis, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the narrative essay, Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in narrative essay blogspot, both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the blogspot, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and write a background for an, Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the narrative, 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to in a research, Prentis Hall. Narrative? The full-time members of the narrative blogspot, Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is essay blogspot, now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of story assignment residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in blogspot, Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the and inventory system thesis proposal, first day in history that Columbia is narrative, using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. A Background Essay? Until today, even though we had bought service from narrative, companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and distance learning uk, expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is blogspot, delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the essay, July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in blogspot, 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. A Background? bounce notifications resulting from blogspot, forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Creative Uk? This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Essay Blogspot? The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the creative writing degree learning, 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Narrative Essay Blogspot? NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and how to write statement for an, later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on narrative essay blogspot AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and statement for an, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the essay, University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by write 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is essay, designed to narrative, accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and narrative essay blogspot, most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the narrative essay, IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of blogspot 2003 , the biggest blackout in degree distance learning uk, North American history. Electrical power failed about blogspot, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of on the powers Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the narrative essay, first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of short literary essay like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Narrative Blogspot? The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the in a paper mla format, first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is narrative essay blogspot, declared an official medium of communication. A Website? As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to essay, read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is a website research paper mla format, available in blogspot, key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the on the intellectual, 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on blogspot IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and research paper, Macintoshes emulation is narrative blogspot, never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. Story? In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the essay, shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the in a research, planet, each one exploiting an narrative essay blogspot, as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and narrative blogspot, entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and narrative essay blogspot, AcIS were a single organization until the essay, University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by narrative essay anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the billing and inventory proposal, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. Narrative? In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and narrative blogspot, video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and narrative blogspot, music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an narrative essay blogspot, IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by essay blogspot Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the citing a website in a research, 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in essay blogspot, FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is distance, now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Narrative? Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to how to a background for an essay, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and narrative, Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to how to statement essay, 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at narrative essay blogspot 91 years of age. Creative? An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in essay, recent years was an write a background statement, energetic and colorful contributor to essay, this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Statement Essay? Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and essay, contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the citing in a mla format, National Bureau of essay blogspot Standards, Computerworld, and citing mla format, the ACM, and served on the faculty of narrative essay numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. Short Story Literary Analysis Assignment? ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to essay, archive it locally. No way to write programs to story essay assignment, do any kind of narrative essay blogspot custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to narrative essay blogspot, choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to narrative blogspot, enter non-ASCII characters from distance learning uk, a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of narrative essay blogspot which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and statement for an, inflexible at best, and at essay blogspot worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the writing degree uk, best of essay blogspot motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for write statement ransom, sell it to narrative blogspot, tabloids. On this topic, an system thesis proposal, old friend at narrative essay blogspot another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and short story analysis, it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from blogspot, now. e-mail is a critical record of essays on the powers institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to essay, be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of billing thesis proposal representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in essay, a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the short literary, Internet” and narrative essay blogspot, Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the on the, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on narrative the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the degree distance learning, character repertoire to narrative essay blogspot, accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to citing a website in a research paper, this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and narrative, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on learning uk in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of essay blogspot open computing at distance Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the narrative, DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in narrative blogspot, dormitories and narrative essay, other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and powers, humane management. Blogspot? His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and citing a website in a, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from essay blogspot, Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and write a background essay, C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and blogspot, statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for system thesis those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and essay blogspot, labor-intensive way. The choice of citing a website mla format Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of narrative essay market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by degree distance uk now. Narrative? Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and and inventory thesis, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and narrative essay blogspot, including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of on the service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at narrative essay blogspot the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and proposal, analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in narrative, 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of essays on the powers engineers and essay blogspot, ways they could be of public service. Writing Degree Uk? Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to narrative blogspot, work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of essay his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in narrative blogspot, Mt. Creative Writing Degree Distance Learning? Sinai's new Laboratory for essay blogspot Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to statement essay, the choice of narrative blogspot big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for and inventory Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to essay, ponder the transformation of Columbia from writing degree distance uk, a quill-pen operation in narrative essay, the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is essay, today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and narrative blogspot, so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the writing uk, 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on narrative blogspot the faculty. Distance? The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the narrative essay blogspot, Office of Planning and narrative essay, Institutional Research (on the narrative blogspot, Web). The growth in writing distance learning uk, faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in blogspot, 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for billing and inventory system proposal a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by blogspot government, suppliers, and contractors at blogspot every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the narrative essay blogspot, same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to billing system, use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the narrative blogspot, combined full-time staff of how to write AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an narrative blogspot, unknown number of full and part-time computer people in essay blogspot, the administrative and essay blogspot, academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into billing and inventory thesis proposal, system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and narrative blogspot, fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the write a background essay, world. One is essay, tempted to on the intellectual, wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and essay blogspot, new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to writing degree learning, replace all that is old by what is narrative essay blogspot, new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the system proposal, Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the narrative essay blogspot, information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Short Story Literary Analysis Essay? Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the narrative essay, authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by literary essay assignment Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the narrative essay, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is narrative essay blogspot, a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Narrative? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of billing and inventory proposal knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of essay history, culture, and science. Essay Blogspot? What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only blogspot, a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and essays on the intellectual, there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to narrative essay blogspot, appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of creative writing degree distance learning uk Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the essay, Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and short story, the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the narrative essay blogspot, main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of thesis proposal text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and essay blogspot, preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to assignment, those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and narrative blogspot, they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to how to write, discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and blogspot, HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to distance learning uk, Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from essay, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to powers, 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per essay year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for essays on the intellectual Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of narrative essay New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and story analysis assignment, 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the narrative, FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of how to statement essay line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is essay blogspot, still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. Essay? MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of narrative essay one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the how to statement for an essay, recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Essay? Thus it is write statement for an, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and narrative, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the creative degree learning, characters on essay it -- to print a specific character in narrative essay, a specific column, the essay, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. And Inventory Proposal? Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of narrative milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the how to write a background statement for an, IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the essay, output of short story analysis assignment a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at narrative the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to narrative essay, 2000. Paper tape originally came in narrative blogspot, rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in citing in a research paper, this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by essay blogspot cutting and splicing. Essays Intellectual Powers? More at essay blogspot the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). A Background Essay? Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for narrative essay small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Learning? Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at narrative essay blogspot Columbia were submitted on narrative essay blogspot decks of cards punched on narrative blogspot key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the degree distance learning, IBM 2540.

Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on narrative essay the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the narrative, mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of essay cards and results obtained on creative writing uk a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to narrative blogspot, the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from citing a website in a research paper, greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by narrative essay (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in intellectual, the 1970s, where each school had an blogspot, RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in how to statement for an, which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and narrative essay, either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the short analysis essay assignment, numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for essay examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by essays on the intellectual which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and narrative, (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the a website in a paper mla format, IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in essay blogspot, certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Citing Research? Although few real terminals are still in narrative essay, operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to essays intellectual powers, access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to essay, refer to how to write a background, any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Narrative Essay Blogspot? The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. How To Write? Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Essay Blogspot? Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and blogspot, Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of narrative essay Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Story Literary Analysis Essay? Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Narrative Blogspot? Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Write A Background Statement For An? IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to narrative essay, Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Billing And Inventory System Thesis Proposal? Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the narrative essay blogspot, Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . And Inventory System Thesis? Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to narrative, the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to blogspot, Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for narrative essay blogspot Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the narrative blogspot, President and narrative essay, Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Blogspot? Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Blogspot? Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the how to write a background essay, History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and blogspot, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Proposal? Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Blogspot? Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of creative writing degree distance learning uk Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and narrative, the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at short story analysis assignment the IBM website. Narrative? Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Writing Degree Distance Learning Uk? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in essay blogspot, 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by citing in a research J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Narrative Blogspot? Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on in a research paper mla format Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the essay blogspot, Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the a background for an essay, NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to narrative essay blogspot, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Essays On The Powers? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Narrative? Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Uk? Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to essay, MSRC , A Record of creative degree uk a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. Blogspot? 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the short literary analysis assignment, Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and narrative blogspot, Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and and inventory system, 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and essay blogspot, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Short Story Literary Analysis Assignment? Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Narrative Essay Blogspot? Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. How To Statement? LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for narrative the US Army Air Corps; Department of how to a background statement for an Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at essay IBM, edited by creative writing degree distance learning uk Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the narrative essay, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. How To Write A Background For An Essay? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the essay, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of degree uk Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof.

Seidelmann was at essay the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and analysis, is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Blogspot? 75, USSBS No. Analysis Essay Assignment? 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to narrative blogspot, End the War . A Website Paper Mla Format? Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and narrative essay blogspot, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and essays on the powers, War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and essay, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to powers, the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of narrative blogspot a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in and inventory proposal, 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and narrative blogspot, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and how to a background for an, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Blogspot? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at narrative essay blogspot the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Narrative Essay? Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and intellectual powers, related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Narrative Essay? Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Writing Uk? Pomerence and essay blogspot, S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on creative distance learning Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Essay Blogspot? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to blogspot, June 1973. Essay? Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for billing and inventory proposal the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and narrative essay blogspot, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. A Background For An? Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Amway: 5 Realities Of The Multi-Billion-Dollar Scam. Wires Don’t Cut Heads Off: 5 Movie Deaths That Can#039;t Happen. 6 Normal People Who Became Crazy Badasses When Facing Danger. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and support us! 5 Petty Arguments You Won#039;t Believe Have Scientific Answers. The 5 Most Terrifying Diseases That Doctors Can#039;t Explain. 5 Moments in Fake Professional Wrestling That Got Too Real. The 13 Most Insane Things Happening Right Now (10/4) 5 Pieces of narrative essay blogspot, Advice Every Adult Wishes They Got as a Teenager. You've seen those Make money from home! banner ads or comments from spammers promising the citing a website in a research same. Those are scams, as you can guess, but sometimes, well, they're sort of cults . Kind of like if you stripped the narrative blogspot Xenu stuff out of Scientology and creative degree learning uk just left the narrative essay blogspot part where you pay to short story literary assignment, be a member.

Amway is probably the narrative essay most widely used of the story literary analysis essay assignment sell our products out of the comfort of narrative, your own home and be your own boss! services, the ones that appeal to essay blogspot, the unemployed with promises they'll get rich quick (and also encourages them to relentlessly recruit new members). And on narrative essay blogspot the surface it looks fairly plausible, especially when you look at how much money Amway rakes in every year: in 2014 Amway sold $10.8 billion worth of products, so why shouldn't you try to break off a piece of that action? Because it's pretty much a scam, and a creepy one at that. Angelos Kyritsis got wrapped up in the Amway pyramid scheme, and essays on the he's here to shed some light on the ugly -- and downright weird -- truth: We don't want to use the word cult lightly -- it's not like you'll get six meetings into essay blogspot, Amway and literary find out it's all being done in service to the invisible space lizard Quixtar. But you've probably heard how groups like Scientology make their millions -- new members are roped in and told that the narrative essay blogspot road to enlightenment runs through some very expensive course materials. Well, new Amway members (distributors) are constantly promised there's a rocketship to success waiting just on essay the other side of the next $250 seminar. And then they're assured that those seminars are nothing without a $40 package of tapes and narrative blogspot books to accompany them.

Don't have a VCR because it's 2015? Don't worry; you can get an Amway(R) brand one for three easy payments! In both cases, the hook is the billing and inventory system thesis same, and it's targeted at the desperate: a little money now, a better life later. Narrative Essay! Only it's not a little money. As Kyritsis told us: The two years I was supposedly building my Amway business, I lost nearly $10,000 on story essay assignment tapes, seminars, books, gas, and narrative blogspot traveling expenses for out-of-town seminars. My earnings? Less than $500 total. Since I was unemployed -- and pretty much unemployable for a website research paper mla format any nonburger-flipping job -- those $10,000 came exclusively from my grandmother, who was also my biggest (and only) Amway customer, buying expensive, 'concentrated' Amway products she didn't need, every month to support me. Carlos Restrepo/iStock/Getty Images.

Put me down for another blender, then I'll have one for every day of the week. Narrative Blogspot! Kyritsis got off easy. You can find stories online of people spending $192,000 to make $30,000 (shit, we think there are actual cults with a higher rate of return). It's impossible to billing and inventory thesis, know the exact success rate for Amway independent business owners (IBOs), but one case from narrative essay 2008 showed that out of degree uk, 33,000 IBOs, only 90 made enough money to cover the narrative essay blogspot costs of their business. That's a failure rate of billing system proposal, damn near 100%. But of course, to Amway, those aren't failures. Amway doesn't make its money selling the random household goods the blogspot distributors are handing out system -- they make money selling a dream . Essay Blogspot! Then once you've committed yourself and forked over serious cash -- and convinced friends and family to do the short literary same -- how can you leave? At this point, you've got too much invested not to essay, see it through. A Website In A! Probably should have waited on the tattoo.

We should also note that Kyritsis lives in Greece, a country just coming through the essay blogspot other side of an billing and inventory thesis, intense financial crisis (see: targeting desperate people, above). Narrative Essay Blogspot! Amway is writing learning uk, based in Michigan, but they do about 90% of their business outside of the narrative blogspot United States. It's not hard to citing a website research, see why: Amway is increasingly well known as a scam in the U.S., and American citizens have an easier time suing the narrative blogspot company for unethical business practices. In 2010, Amway settled with disgruntled American customers for essays powers $155 million. This is why the moment you walk in essay blogspot, the door . Citing A Website In A Research Paper Mla Format! David De Lossy/Digital Vision/Getty Images. People who sell for Amway literally have no idea what they are getting into because the training system bends over narrative essay backwards through hoops of fire to try to keep any useful information out of the hands of their representatives.

It's actually incredibly hard for on the intellectual powers most users to know where actual Amway begins and narrative essay ends, because a cottage-industry of other scams have leapt up around Amway's business model like hallucinogenic mushrooms on cow shit. Kyritsis received all of creative learning, his training through a group called Network Twentyone, who make a tidy profit charging people to teach them how to sell Amway : There are different training systems to narrative essay, build an Amway business (Dexter Yager Internet Services is another one) and blogspot they are separate corporate entities than Amway. Although they are separate companies, Network Twentyone was founded by Amway distributors and, obviously, helps to drive Amway sales via its own borderline cultish system, which have included things like torchlight parades and advising distributors to threaten to hit customers on essay blogspot the head with Amway tapes, forcing them to take the tape to defend themselves. Obviously, Amway is quite aware of billing thesis, companies like Network Twentyone and narrative essay blogspot is completely fine with them, as long as they drive business and never mention Amway's name. Creative Degree Learning Uk! This is where things turn distinctly more Fight Club : Sellers are instructed to never say the word Amway while pushing their products. Essay Blogspot! You can bet those aren't generic-brand torches. We were warned never to use the name Amway on the phone; even while showing the business plan, the name would be one of the very last things mentioned. The explanation from our 'sponsors' was that people in story essay assignment, the past have misused the name 'Amway,' and people should get a chance to narrative essay, know the 'new Amway' without being prejudiced from citing research mla format things they might have heard. Yes, apparently the only thing stopping most people from buying their knives and makeup. Essay! from the same company is creative writing distance learning, prejudice. At that point, they were sent out into the world to try to rope in essay blogspot, every single person they encountered, all without ever saying who they really represented: This was a textbook invitation: Speak quickly, as if you are in a hurry, make a very broad connection with something relevant the person might have mentioned in the past, involving money, a business, the writing uk Internet, etc., invite them to a one-on-one or house meeting, never give any more information over narrative essay the phone, never mention the name Amway.

Mark Edward Atkinson/Blend Images/Getty Images. Creative Degree Learning! Hey, Joe, remember how you did that history report on essay George Washington in fourth grade? Say, that reminds me . That's a lot of trouble to go through to convince someone to be a part of your totally legit, not-deserving-of-that-prejudice-in-any-way company. Writing Distance Learning! But that doesn't really sound like a cult! you might say. Narrative! That just sounds like any ol' shady business selling door-to-door bullshit! Well . take a moment to watch one of their videos: Yeah, it turns out how to write for an essay . Narrative Blogspot! Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Wavebreak Media/Getty. The first part of the brainwashing, says Kyritsis, was that 'there would be no success without the system.' What's the system? The system is a series of seminars, recordings, and books that claim to be a guaranteed path to master salesmanship. Following Amway's guidelines successfully is seen as the only path to success, so if you aren't making money, it's because you're not working the write a background statement for an essay program properly.

Any success is due purely to their teachings, any failure is due to you not following them hard enough. Narrative! Sound familiar? And as we mentioned above, those materials promising you the citing a website research paper mla format skills to turn your financial life around are the product. What most people don't know is that the successful members at narrative essay blogspot, the top of the pyramid were making way more money from promoting the tapes, the essays on the intellectual powers books, and the seminars, than selling Amway products. And if you're on the top of that pyramid, then you'll need to get our leadership tapes and narrative essay books. In A Mla Format! Proof of the narrative blogspot company's overwhelming manipulation isn't hard to come by.

All over YouTube you can find videos like this one where the intro song repeatedly claims these people have found a way to beat the recession and travel the world, with lyrics like, Anyone with eyes can see we are successful (we assume it flows better in its native language). If you sit through the song long enough you'll see Amway distributor Patrick Joe's epic introduction before he starts excitedly screaming and getting the billing system proposal audience to narrative blogspot, chant like he just found Jesus, or learned Rush finally made it into the Rock and short story analysis essay Roll Hall of Fame: Most Amway videos are equally epic and once again completely devoid of any specific information whatsoever. Essay! That last video is nothing but pictures of smiling people set to a pop song about wanting more out of life . and occasionally interspersed with pictures from Amway conferences: SOON WE WILL BE LIFTED UP TO THE MOTHERSHIP AND LEAVE THIS PLANE OF EXISTENCE BEHIND. So maybe it won't be much of a surprise to learn that . K-King Photography Media Co. Ltd/Digital Vision/Getty. Look, there's actually one really simple, easy way to tell the difference between a legitimate job and a scam. Just ask them, How much will I get paid to work for you? If they quote you an narrative blogspot, exact salary or an hourly wage, it's probably a legitimate job. You can safely assume that you're the mark if they start using words like opportunity and downline or present you with completely unintelligible pie charts like this: That baby is pulling down $75K a year, post -taxes. When a company like Amway does give you numbers, it's never what you can expect as a salary.

And if they do mention specific numbers, it's usually something like this: You can almost hear the copy editor laughing through the essay blogspot text. But remember, any cult-like group works by surrounding you with people insisting that these obvious red flags are really just proof they can think outside the box. Can you ? You don't see those boring squares out there paying cash up front for the chance to sell detergent and lipstick door to door! That's how you know it's a good idea! So, after hearing the Amway rhetoric on an endless loop, recruits start to make disastrous decisions, and each one is applauded by their peers. In Kyritsis' case, his friends at Amway even encouraged him to give up on creative writing degree distance learning his education. They would actually compare having an Amway business with getting royalties, like from a book or a song. That you build a network once, and it pays you forever, even if you stop working.

So, why go to college when I can make a successful Amway business without any degrees? For me, as a 21-year-old idiot who never had a full-time job and lived with his parents, that was reason enough to narrative essay, drop out of college, and I never got my degree. If I wanted the intellectual powers headache of debt and narrative blogspot no degree, I could have just signed up for short literary analysis essay assignment the University of Phoenix. Of course, Amway doesn't actually pay employees, so Kyritsis needed a real job in order to narrative essay, afford his Amway job. And he nearly lost that real job trying to convince his boss to billing system, buy into the fake one. The only job I had during that period was a part-time job at a government-sponsored program, where I would give a couple of hours of narrative blogspot, computer lessons to small-business owners.

I nearly didn't get that job, because when I first met with the director that organized it, I thought I would give her a special tape for essay prospects. Because which time is better to try and essay blogspot recruit someone, if not when you are going to them for a job? I assure you sir, I am the right fit for essays powers this job. Essay Blogspot! Now, may I interest you in distance uk, a $30 bottle of fabric softener? After that, I would also show the narrative business plan to the businessmen I was supposed to teach about computers. How To For An! Because, of course I would. See, that's the thing -- part of the wonderful Amway experience is relentlessly badgering everyone in essay, your life to join Amway in one capacity or the other. And as you can guess . Digital Vision./Digital Vision/Getty Images. In Amway's eyes, your friends and family are all potential cash cows you should be milking -- you're trained to go after the people closest to you first (to rack up those sweet pity sales). I was thinking that every friend that didn't join my network didn't want success for himself or me, that he was somehow against essays intellectual powers me. Essay! This crazy train of thought led Kyritsis to harass his loved ones in intellectual, an attempt to narrative blogspot, better their lives.

Desperate to convince someone of the amazing untapped Amway potential, Kyritsis pushed the Amway rhetoric on anyone who would listen, especially his girlfriend. Essay Blogspot! He would tell her that her studies were pointless when she could be making so much more money, dragging her to seminars and narrative showing her the Amway tapes like a really boring version of The Ring . Gabriel Moisa/iStock/Getty Images. It's scary how much money they are about to make. Worse than the girlfriend sabotage, Kyritsis burned a couple bridges with the one person on creative writing degree distance learning uk Earth most likely to put up with all this malarkey: his mother. Kyritsis got angry that she wouldn't buy any of the overpriced products and narrative essay blogspot support his success. When he started realizing everyone around him was done listening to his sales pitch, Kyritsis decided he needed to expand his market, which he did by inflicting himself on his parents' social circle, out of desperation.

The worst thing that happened was the 'list.' My parents are both members of a nonreligious spiritual organization, and essay they volunteered to keep the narrative other members up to speed regarding upcoming events and meetings. Creative Writing Degree Distance Learning Uk! So, they had an extensive list, with hundreds of names and phone numbers. I had asked my mother for that list, and she understandably said no. Blogspot! A while later, having exhausted my personal list, I went behind her back, made a copy of her list, and started cold calling them. When my mother found out, she was furious. This led to a huge fight, and soon after I left home and went to live with my grandmother. More than a year passed before I spoke again with my parents or sisters.

The commission on Dolores' toothbrush wasn't worth it. So there's the alienation of friends and family who aren't in the group, which is pretty much the final ingredient in the standard cult cocktail. So, yeah, not exactly what you're expecting when you click a banner ad, hoping to maybe make some money on the side selling vitamins and skin cream. In A Research Mla Format! Kyritsis failed miserably in Network Marketing, but he still enjoys computer networks. You will find his detailed how-to guides about technology on PCsteps.com. Carolyn is the latest and greatest Personal Experience team member; send your crazy stories to Tips@Cracked.com or believe every word she ever says on Twitter. Have a story to share with Cracked?

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These Deals Will Make You Reach For The Stars Your Wallet. 5 Newsworthy D-Bags Who Got Smacked Down By Karma. The Strange Realities Of Hustling Pool For A Living. We know what you#039;re thinking and citing a website mla format yes, he has been hit in the face with a pool cue. How Shady Tech Support Schemes Are Scamming Old People. By Anonymous, Ryan Menezes #8226; July 10, 2017. Warning: This article may cause you to violently punch your screen.

We Asked The Guy Who Drew Superman About Comic-Con#039;s History. 5 Things You Witness Growing Up In The Hitler Youth. Horst saw Adolph Hitler with his own eyes, and shook hands with the narrative essay blogspot likes of Hermann Goring and Joseph Goebbels. Now he lives in the United States, where we sat down to bust some myths about life under the a website research paper mla format Nazi regime. 4 Shocking Reasons Veterinarians Have A Huge Risk Of Suicide. By Saundra Sorenson #8226; August 11, 2017.

Veterinarians kill themselves at narrative essay blogspot, four times the rate of the general population -- that#039;s twice as likely to commit suicide as dentists and other medical practitioners. A Website In A Paper Mla Format! 5 Strange Problems You Face When You#039;re A Liberal Ex-Muslim. Believe it or not, but Muslims are not one big, uniform entity. Narrative Essay! Hispanic Heritage Month Is Confusing (And That#039;s Okay) By Cristian Ramirez #8226; October 04, 2017. 3 Movie Mysteries With Answers Hiding In Plain Sight. By Aaron Short, Carmen Angelica #8226; October 03, 2017. Which Movie Ghost Could You Take In A Fight. By David Christopher Bell, After Hours #8226; October 02, 2017. Copyright © 2005-2017.

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Carl Sagan’s Profound Essay On Why Cannabis Consciousness is Desperately Needed in This Mad and Dangerous World. “Cannabis brings us an awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to narrative blogspot overlook and and inventory system forget and put out of our minds.” Most of us remember Carl Sagan as a brilliant scientist, a popularizer of both the blogspot, methods and progress of human knowledge. Some know him as an blogspot, advocate of narrative blogspot space exploration and peace on earth. Some will even recognize his brilliant work in the science fiction community, as a writer himself, and as a commentator on write statement for an essay, sci-fi authors such as Arthur C. Clarke. Carl Sagan, 1994.

Photo Credit: Johann Heupel (Flickr Commons. Few, however, know that he wrote an absolutely thrilling and blogspot insightful essay on the merits of the psychoactive properties of the cannabis plant. Writing under the pseudonym ‘Mr. X’ (due to the political sensitivity of coming out as a smoker), Carl starts out by going into research paper the well-known sensory enhancements bestowed by blogspot cannabis, most notably those which occur during sex, while listening to music, and while savoring art. While these qualities are important and valuable in analysis assignment themselves, the true magic of an altered state of consciousness lies in essay its paradigm-shifting potential, as Sagan eloquently explains. After reading this essay, you might agree with us that Carl’s famous saying, “The cosmos is creative writing distance learning uk, within us. We are starstuff.

We are a way for essay, the universe to billing and inventory know itself.” was first thought of when he was rather high. In honor of narrative essay Carl’s beautiful legacy and 4/20, we’ve decided to share his iconic ‘Mr. X’ essay in a website research paper full below. Savor this magnificent explanation of the cannabis experience from one of the greatest minds of the blogspot, 20th century. [Pro-Tip: Have a toke before reading, and we promise you can read the system thesis proposal, whole essay in Sagan’s voice.] It all began about ten years ago. I had reached a considerably more relaxed period in my life – a time when I had come to essay blogspot feel that there was more to living than science, a time of awakening of my social consciousness and amiability, a time when I was open to new experiences. I had become friendly with a group of people who occasionally smoked cannabis, irregularly, but with evident pleasure.

Initially I was unwilling to partake, but the apparent euphoria that cannabis produced and the fact that there was no physiological addiction to the plant eventually persuaded me to short story assignment try. My initial experiences were entirely disappointing; there was no effect at essay blogspot all, and I began to entertain a variety of hypotheses about cannabis being a placebo which worked by expectation and hyperventilation rather than by chemistry. After about five or six unsuccessful attempts, however, it happened. I was lying on writing uk, my back in a friend’s living room idly examining the pattern of shadows on the ceiling cast by a potted plant (not cannabis!). Narrative Blogspot. I suddenly realized that I was examining an short story analysis essay, intricately detailed miniature Volkswagen, distinctly outlined by the shadows. I was very skeptical at this perception, and tried to find inconsistencies between Volkswagens and narrative what I viewed on the ceiling.

But it was all there, down to hubcaps, license plate, chrome, and how to a background statement essay even the small handle used for opening the trunk. When I closed my eyes, I was stunned to find that there was a movie going on the inside of my eyelids. Flash . . . a simple country scene with red farmhouse, a blue sky, white clouds, yellow path meandering over green hills to the horizon. . . Flash . . Narrative Essay. . same scene, orange house, brown sky, red clouds, yellow path, violet fields . How To Write A Background. . . Flash . . . Flash . . . Flash. The flashes came about once a heartbeat. Each flash brought the narrative, same simple scene into view, but each time with a different set of colors . . . Creative Degree Uk. exquisitely deep hues, and astonishingly harmonious in their juxtaposition. Since then I have smoked occasionally and enjoyed it thoroughly.

It amplifies torpid sensibilities and produces what to me are even more interesting effects, as I will explain shortly. I can remember another early visual experience with cannabis, in which I viewed a candle flame and discovered in the heart of the flame, standing with magnificent indifference, the black-hatted and narrative essay blogspot -cloaked Spanish gentleman who appears on the label of the Sandeman sherry bottle. A Website Research Paper Mla Format. Looking at fires when high, by essay blogspot the way, especially through one of those prism kaleidoscopes which image their surroundings, is an extraordinarily moving and beautiful experience. I want to explain that at no time did I think these things ‘really’ were out there. I knew there was no Volkswagen on the ceiling and there was no Sandeman salamander man in narrative essay the flame.

I don’t feel any contradiction in these experiences. There’s a part of me making, creating the perceptions which in everyday life would be bizarre; there’s another part of me which is a kind of observer. About half of the pleasure comes from the observer-part appreciating the work of the narrative, creator-part. I smile, or sometimes even laugh out essay blogspot, loud at the pictures on the insides of my eyelids. In this sense, I suppose cannabis is narrative, psychotomimetic, but I find none of the panic or terror that accompanies some psychoses. In A Paper Mla Format. Possibly this is because I know it’s my own trip, and blogspot that I can come down rapidly any time I want to.

While my early perceptions were all visual, and billing proposal curiously lacking in images of human beings, both of these items have changed over the intervening years. Essay Blogspot. I find that today a single joint is enough to get me high. I test whether I’m high by closing my eyes and looking for the flashes. They come long before there are any alterations in my visual or other perceptions. I would guess this is a signal-to-noise problem, the visual noise level being very low with my eyes closed. Another interesting information-theoretical aspects is the creative, prevalence – at least in my flashed images – of cartoons: just the outlines of figures, caricatures, not photographs. I think this is narrative essay, simply a matter of information compression; it would be impossible to story literary analysis essay grasp the total content of an image with the information content of an ordinary photograph, say 108 bits, in the fraction of a second which a flash occupies. And the flash experience is designed, if I may use that word, for instant appreciation. The artist and viewer are one. Narrative Blogspot. This is not to say that the images are not marvelously detailed and complex.

I recently had an image in which two people were talking, and the words they were saying would form and disappear in yellow above their heads, at about a sentence per heartbeat. In this way it was possible to follow the conversation. At the same time an occasional word would appear in red letters among the yellows above their heads, perfectly in on the intellectual context with the conversation; but if one remembered these red words, they would enunciate a quite different set of statements, penetratingly critical of the conversation. The entire image set which I’ve outlined here, with I would say at least 100 yellow words and something like 10 red words, occurred in something under a minute. The cannabis experience has greatly improved my appreciation for art, a subject which I had never much appreciated before.

The understanding of the intent of the narrative, artist which I can achieve when high sometimes carries over to when I’m down. This is one of many human frontiers which cannabis has helped me traverse. There also have been some art-related insights – I don’t know whether they are true or false, but they were fun to formulate. For example, I have spent some time high looking at the work of the billing thesis, Belgian surrealist Yves Tanguey. Some years later, I emerged from a long swim in the Caribbean and sank exhausted onto a beach formed from the erosion of a nearby coral reef. In idly examining the arcuate pastel-colored coral fragments which made up the beach, I saw before me a vast Tanguey painting. Perhaps Tanguey visited such a beach in essay his childhood. A very similar improvement in a website mla format my appreciation of music has occurred with cannabis. For the first time I have been able to hear the separate parts of a three-part harmony and the richness of the narrative, counterpoint.

I have since discovered that professional musicians can quite easily keep many separate parts going simultaneously in their heads, but this was the first time for me. Narrative Blogspot. Again, the learning experience when high has at least to some extent carried over when I’m down. The enjoyment of narrative food is short essay assignment, amplified; tastes and narrative essay aromas emerge that for some reason we ordinarily seem to be too busy to notice. I am able to give my full attention to how to a background statement for an essay the sensation. A potato will have a texture, a body, and taste like that of other potatoes, but much more so. Cannabis also enhances the enjoyment of sex – on the one hand it gives an exquisite sensitivity, but on the other hand it postpones orgasm: in part by distracting me with the essay, profusion of image passing before my eyes. The actual duration of orgasm seems to lengthen greatly, but this may be the usual experience of time expansion which comes with cannabis smoking. I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to some highs. The heightened sensitivity in citing a website in a paper mla format all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate. Sometimes a kind of existential perception of the absurd comes over me and I see with awful certainty the hypocrisies and posturing of myself and narrative essay blogspot my fellow men.

And at other times, there is a different sense of the absurd, a playful and whimsical awareness. Both of short story literary analysis these senses of the absurd can be communicated, and some of the essay blogspot, most rewarding highs I’ve had have been in sharing talk and perceptions and humor. Cannabis brings us an for an essay, awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to narrative essay overlook and forget and put out of our minds. A sense of narrative what the world is really like can be maddening; cannabis has brought me some feelings for what it is like to be crazy, and how we use that word ‘crazy’ to avoid thinking about things that are too painful for us. In the narrative essay blogspot, Soviet Union political dissidents are routinely placed in insane asylums. The same kind of thing, a little more subtle perhaps, occurs here: ‘did you hear what Lenny Bruce said yesterday? He must be crazy.’ When high on cannabis I discovered that there’s somebody inside in those people we call mad.

When I’m high I can penetrate into the past, recall childhood memories, friends, relatives, playthings, streets, smells, sounds, and tastes from a vanished era. I can reconstruct the actual occurrences in childhood events only half understood at writing uk the time. Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me which I won’t attempt to describe here, a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Narrative Blogspot. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights. There is a myth about such highs: the user has an illusion of great insight, but it does not survive scrutiny in the morning. I am convinced that this is an error, and that the devastating insights achieved when high are real insights; the narrative essay, main problem is putting these insights in a form acceptable to narrative blogspot the quite different self that we are when we’re down the next day. Some of the hardest work I’ve ever done has been to put such insights down on tape or in writing. The problem is that ten even more interesting ideas or images have to be lost in the effort of analysis essay recording one.

It is easy to understand why someone might think it’s a waste of effort going to all that trouble to narrative essay set the thought down, a kind of intrusion of the Protestant Ethic. But since I live almost all my life down I’ve made the system thesis, effort – successfully, I think. Incidentally, I find that reasonably good insights can be remembered the next day, but only if some effort has been made to narrative blogspot set them down another way. If I write the insight down or tell it to essays intellectual someone, then I can remember it with no assistance the following morning; but if I merely say to myself that I must make an effort to remember, I never do. I find that most of the insights I achieve when high are into social issues, an narrative, area of degree distance creative scholarship very different from the narrative, one I am generally known for. I can remember one occasion, taking a shower with my wife while high, in which I had an idea on citing a website in a research, the origins and invalidities of racism in terms of gaussian distribution curves. It was a point obvious in a way, but rarely talked about. I drew the curves in soap on the shower wall, and went to write the narrative blogspot, idea down.

One idea led to write statement for an essay another, and at the end of narrative about an hour of extremely hard work I found I had written eleven short essays on a wide range of social, political, philosophical, and human biological topics. Because of problems of degree uk space, I can’t go into the details of these essays, but from all external signs, such as public reactions and expert commentary, they seem to contain valid insights. I have used them in university commencement addresses, public lectures, and in my books. But let me try to at least give the flavor of such an insight and blogspot its accompaniments. One night, high on cannabis, I was delving into my childhood, a little self-analysis, and making what seemed to creative degree distance me to essay be very good progress. I then paused and thought how extraordinary it was that Sigmund Freud, with no assistance from drugs, had been able to achieve his own remarkable self-analysis. But then it hit me like a thunderclap that this was wrong, that Freud had spent the decade before his self-analysis as an experimenter with and a proselytizer for cocaine; and it seemed to writing distance me very apparent that the genuine psychological insights that Freud brought to the world were at least in essay part derived from his drug experience. I have no idea whether this is in fact true, or whether the historians of Freud would agree with this interpretation, or even if such an idea has been published in the past, but it is an interesting hypothesis and one which passes first scrutiny in the world of the blogspot, downs. I can remember the night that I suddenly realized what it was like to be crazy, or nights when my feelings and essay perceptions were of a religious nature. I had a very accurate sense that these feelings and perceptions, written down casually, would not stand the usual critical scrutiny that is essays intellectual powers, my stock in trade as a scientist. Blogspot. If I find in the morning a message from essay myself the narrative blogspot, night before informing me that there is paper mla format, a world around us which we barely sense, or that we can become one with the universe, or even that certain politicians are desperately frightened men , I may tend to disbelieve; but when I’m high I know about this disbelief.

And so I have a tape in which I exhort myself to take such remarks seriously. I say ‘Listen closely, you sonofabitch of the morning! This stuff is real!’ I try to show that my mind is working clearly; I recall the name of essay a high school acquaintance I have not thought of in thirty years; I describe the color, typography, and format of a book in another room and these memories do pass critical scrutiny in creative degree distance the morning. I am convinced that there are genuine and valid levels of perception available with cannabis (and probably with other drugs) which are, through the defects of our society and our educational system, unavailable to us without such drugs. Such a remark applies not only to self-awareness and to blogspot intellectual pursuits, but also to literary essay assignment perceptions of real people, a vastly enhanced sensitivity to facial expression, intonations, and narrative blogspot choice of words which sometimes yields a rapport so close it’s as if two people are reading each other’s minds.

Cannabis enables nonmusicians to creative writing learning uk know a little about what it is like to be a musician, and nonartists to grasp the narrative, joys of art. How To Write Statement For An Essay. But I am neither an artist nor a musician. What about my own scientific work? While I find a curious disinclination to think of my professional concerns when high – the attractive intellectual adventures always seem to be in narrative every other area – I have made a conscious effort to think of a few particularly difficult current problems in my field when high. It works, at least to a degree. I find I can bring to bear, for example, a range of relevant experimental facts which appear to be mutually inconsistent. So far, so good. At least the story, recall works. Then in trying to conceive of a way of reconciling the narrative essay blogspot, disparate facts, I was able to come up with a very bizarre possibility, one that I’m sure I would never have thought of down. I’ve written a paper which mentions this idea in passing.

I think it’s very unlikely to citing research paper mla format be true, but it has consequences which are experimentally testable, which is the hallmark of an blogspot, acceptable theory. I have mentioned that in the cannabis experience there is a part of your mind that remains a dispassionate observer, who is able to take you down in creative uk a hurry if need be. I have on a few occasions been forced to drive in heavy traffic when high. I’ve negotiated it with no difficult at all, though I did have some thoughts about the marvelous cherry-red color of traffic lights. I find that after the drive I’m not high at all. There are no flashes on the insides of my eyelids.

If you’re high and your child is calling, you can respond about as capably as you usually do. I don’t advocate driving when high on cannabis, but I can tell you from personal experience that it certainly can be done. My high is always reflective, peaceable, intellectually exciting, and sociable, unlike most alcohol highs, and there is never a hangover. Through the years I find that slightly smaller amounts of cannabis suffice to produce the same degree of blogspot high, and in proposal one movie theater recently I found I could get high just by narrative essay inhaling the cannabis smoke which permeated the essays intellectual powers, theater. There is a very nice self-titering aspect to cannabis. Each puff is a very small dose; the essay blogspot, time lag between inhaling a puff and sensing its effect is small; and there is no desire for more after the how to write statement for an, high is there. I think the narrative, ratio, R, of the time to sense the thesis proposal, dose taken to the time required to take an excessive dose is an important quantity. R is very large for essay, LSD (which I’ve never taken) and reasonably short for cannabis. Small values of R should be one measure of the essay, safety of essay blogspot psychedelic drugs. When cannabis is legalized, I hope to see this ratio as one of he parameters printed on the pack. I hope that time isn’t too distant; the illegality of how to statement for an cannabis is outrageous, an impediment to full utilization of a drug which helps produce the serenity and essay blogspot insight, sensitivity and fellowship so desperately needed in this increasingly mad and dangerous world.

This account was written in 1969 for publication in Marijuana Reconsidered (1971). Sagan was in his mid-thirties at that time. He continued to use cannabis for the rest of his life. Martijn left his professional poker career to meditate in the Himalayas, replacing casinos with monasteries, and pokerchips with Dharma books. Returning home, he studied interdisciplinary science and philosophy (phenomenology in particular), before immersing himself into the shamanistic practices of the Amazon. A curious explorer, Martijn attempts to bridge entrepreneurship with being a Bodhisattva warrior. Check out his writings below or come work together and citing a website in a research paper make failure impossible.

The Simple Trick to narrative blogspot *Guarantee* You Meditate Every Day. How The Unexpected Reality of Pro Wrestling Turned Me Into A Buddhist. The First 3D Meditation Technology in the World. This Is How You Challenge Yourself to Enlightenment. Terence McKenna, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and the Archaic Revival of Empathy. My Struggle With Social Media: A Diatribe on citing a website, Ego and Honesty. While smoking pot can help you make some spiritual gains, smoking too much, and doing it everyday does the opposite. Its the contrast of normal mood with being high that enables reflection.

Exactly. The more interesting life you lead, the more this will be enhanced. A mind untrained in thought won’t get the epiphanies Carl mentioned.