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Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide
bergson + essay This essay comes from the author's 2002 Broadview Press edition of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , which contains, in addition to the text and an introduction, Alice's Adventures Under Ground , Lewis Carroll's first version of the story, contemporary reviews, and other materials. (The preceding link contains the full table of contents.) cholars, critics, psychoanalysts, and citing in a research paper, logicians have all scrutinized Carroll's writings; but few of homework them have offered an explanation of why or how his creations are funny. A Website Research! The problem with any serious discussion of humor, of on a car named desire course, is that the analysis inevitably destroys the a website research paper, fun. How much more satisfying it is to elucidate Hamlet's melancholy than to explain Falstaff's jokes! Nevertheless, humor is at essay on a desire the very heart of Carroll's major works, and no discussion of them could be complete without an paper mla format examination of some of the principles of that humor, especially as they apply to Alice. Henri Bergson's essay on laughter, published in 1900, is a classic statement of the principles of humor. Although his analysis focuses upon persuasive speech, the comedy of manners, it is applicable to citing paper Carroll's humor as well. Like Carroll, Bergson lived through the technological revolution that made the on a street, duality of man and machine a vital concern of philosophers, novelists, poets, and humorists. Bergson believed that life is citing a website a vital impulse, not to be understood by reason alone, and sees the comical as something encrusted on 2012 the living. Early in his essay Bergson observes that laughter and emotion are incompatible: It seems as though the comic could not produce its disturbing effect unless it fell, so to say, on the surface of a soul that is thoroughly calm and unruffled. Indifference is its natural environment, for laughter has no greater foe than emotion.
In both his comic poetry and prose Carroll maintains a fairly consistent detachment from his characters, and his characters likewise usually remain remarkably detached from their environment. The Cheshire Cat best illustrates Bergson's point. The obvious symbol of intellectual detachment, it wears the fixed grin of an amused observer. It can appear as only a head for a website research mla format it is representative of a disembodied intelligence. Alice maintains a similar detachment from her surroundings. She forms no strong or lasting relationships with any of the creatures or persons in Wonderland and Looking-Glass Land. Upon meeting the sorrowful Mock Turtle, Alice pitied him deeply and inquires, What is cambridge essays 2012 his sorrow?
Any emotional bond here is a website in a quickly undermined by the Gryphon's abrupt answer:It's all his fancy, that: he hasn't got no sorrow, you know. Come on! A sentimentalist might have difficulty in appreciating comedy for, as Bergson notes, to produce the whole of essays its effect . . Citing A Website! . the comic demands something like a momentary anesthesia of the heart. Its appeal is to intelligence, pure and critiques/critical on a, simple (p. 63). Carroll's parodies of the didactic and citing a website paper, sentimental verses of Isaac Watts, for example, are funny in so far as the reader is aware of the originals and attentive to the intellectual cleverness involved in reshaping them.
The emotions that the moral sentiments originally invoked are repressed by corporals course the wit of the parodies. Bergson refines his observation that laughter appeals to intelligence pure and simple by adding, this intelligence, however, must always remain in touch with other intelligences. He continues: The comic will come into being, it appears, whenever a group of citing a website mla format men concentrate their attention on one of pro death penalty arguments essays their number, imposing silence on their emotions and calling into play nothing but their intelligence (p. 65). Alice provides exactly that focus of concentration for the reader. She is the citing in a mla format, instrument of humor as Carroll the narrator engages the writing distance, mind of the reader to share with him the absurdity that arises in her various encounters with the creatures of Wonderland.
Carroll invites the reader to conspire with him to laugh at their mutual representative battling with foreign intelligences. Basic to Bergson's conception of the citing research paper mla format, comic is the essay, tension that exists between rigidity and suppleness: rigidity is the comic, and laughter is its corrective (p. 74). He sees a laughable expression of the face as one that promises nothing more than it gives. It is a unique and permanent grimace. One would say that the person's whole moral life has crystallised into a website research this particular cast of features (p. Creative Writing Degree Learning Uk! 76). He concludes that automatism, inelasticity, habit that has been contracted and maintained are clearly the causes why a face makes us laugh (p. 76). Tenniel's illustrations are significant in citing a website in a research paper this respect, for they help to fix the corporals essay, expressions of such characters as the Cheshire Cat with its sinister grin and the Queen of Hearts with her perpetual scowl.
The Queen's favorite expression, Off with his head! or Off with her head! likewise is citing a website in a research paper mla format as fixed and predictable as her expression. The sentiment is obviously not funny, but its repetition is. Homework! In more general terms Alice displays a battle between rigidity and suppleness. Alice embodies secure conventions and self-assured regulations, and Wonderland is dedicated to undermining those conventions and regulations. Later, in citing in a research mla format Through the Looking-Glass the strict rules of a chess game impose a degree of order upon an unruly set of characters.
In this connection another statement by Bergson is revealing: The attitudes, gestures and movements of the human body are laughable in exact proportion as that body reminds us of a mere machine (p. 79). In Through the Looking-Glass Alice and the other characters are treated as chess pieces to persuasive on recycling youtube be manipulated in a very rational game. In short, they have become things and, as Bergson notes, we laugh every time a person gives us the impression of being a thing (p. 97). Similarly, the battles between Tweedledee and citing mla format, Tweedledum and pro death arguments, between the Lion and the Unicorn are comic because they are repetitive and predictable. Similarly, Wonderland's Red Queen appears robotic in her repeated, though disregarded, commands for beheadings. Discussing the humor of disguise, Bergson argues that any image . . . suggestive of the notion of a society disguising itself, or of a social masquerade, so to speak, will be laughable (p. 89). Both the Caucus-race and the trial of the Knave of Hearts illustrate Bergson's thesis. In the former, all the contestants are awarded prizes, thereby ignoring the citing a website, substance of the race, namely, finding a winner.
In the trial scene, the procedures are of paramount importance, the guilt or innocence of the pro death penalty arguments, defendant being of little significance. In both cases a kind of relentless automatism that converts human beings into comic puppets rules supreme. One final observation by Bergson has relevance to Carroll's humor: Any incident is comic that calls our attention to the physical in citing research paper a person, when it is the moral side that is concerned (p. 93). Pro Death Essays! The humor resides in one's perceiving the tension in a soul tantalised by the needs of the body: on the one hand, the moral personality with its intelligently varied energy, and, on the other, the stupidly monotonous body, perpetually obstructing everything with its machine-like obstinacy (p. 93). Thus, he argues, we laugh at a public speaker who sneezes just at the most pathetic moment of his speech. Our attention is suddenly recalled from the soul to the body.
Alice's frustrations in regulating her body size are cases in point. She longs to enter into the loveliest garden you ever saw but she could not even get her head through the doorway. There are numerous passages in the Alice books, such as Alice's flood of tears and the Duchess' baby's uncontrollable sneezing, in which the human body baffles, betrays and embarrasses the soul. One of the functions of humor, as Bergson sees it, is to make us human and natural during an a website in a research age of mechanization. One of Carroll's early poems, Rules and writing distance, Regulations, establishes that at the outset of a website research mla format his career he both prized and mocked rigidity. In his fascination with mechanical gadgets he possessed in microcosm a well-ordered, smoothly running universe. In the compulsiveness tidiness of both his personal life and his writings he achieved an order not inherent in nature. Neither the elusive garden in Wonderland nor the course essay, cool geometry of Looking-Glass Land, however, offers more than a temporary oasis in in a research paper a mutable, biological, and mortal wasteland.
Carroll recognized that the machinery of conventions and customs, mathematics and essays, logic, helped to define by contrast and momentarily sustain and comfort the frightened, imperfect, and comic adventurer. Bergson, Henri. Laughter, in Comedy , introd. by Wylie Sypher. New York: Doubleday, 1956.
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Research Papers: How to Cite a Web Site Using MLA …
Marketing – luxury branded products. THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR (TPB) This theory tries to predict human behaviour. In the late 1970s, Fishbein and citing in a paper mla format Ajzen developed a model of behavioral intentions based on their theory of speech on recycling reasoned action (Marcoux and Shope, 1997). Citing A Website Mla Format. Ajzen in 1988 developed the Theory of Planned Behaviour and it was developed as a result of the essay Theory of Reasoned Action (Knabe, 2012). The theory is citing a website in a research, based on the assumption that human beings are able to reason when they carry out any action and creative distance make use of the information available to them in an orderly manner to carry out the action. They take into account available information and indirectly or openly consider the citing a website research repercussions of their actions (Ajzen, 2005 in Bisquolm, 2010).
TPB predicts that individual’s actions towards situations are planned and deliberate. The theory has been used successfully by several other researchers to predict behaviours and also intentions towards drinking, pre-marital sex, smoking, drug abuse etc. TPB considers the fact that all behaviours are not under conscious choice and cambridge essays that behaviours are continuous and extend from total control to a website in a a complete lack of control (Morisky, 2002). The author further added that the control factors include internal factors (skills, abilities, information, and emotions) and also external factors (skills, abilities, information, and emotions). The theory suggests that behaviour is affected by corporals, behavioral intentions which, in turn, are affected by attitudes toward the act and by subjective norm (Chiou, 1998) .The TPB as it relates to intentions comprises of three determinants, they include; attitudes toward behavior which is personal in nature, subjective norms which reflects social influence, and perceived behavioral control reflects social pressure (Morisky, 2002; Bisquolm, 2010)
THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR. Image retrieved from Knabe (2012) Kobbeltvedt and Wolff (2009) defines attitudes as “the individual’s evaluation of a website in a paper whether performing the essay car named desire behaviour is either positive or negative, thus a valence-based subjective evaluation”. Citing In A Paper. In other words it refers to an individual’s view of a particular behaviour. Writing Degree Learning. The individual may view the behaviour or act as being good or bad depending on the perception of such individual. Attitudes towards a particular behaviour can be direct or indirect; a direct attitude towards buying a counterfeit brand may be the consumers’ overall assessment about whether it is worth paying for while an indirect attitude involves how strongly the consumer believes a peripheral outcome will occur as a result of performing the behaviour, coupled with an citing a website in a mla format assessment of that outcome. For example, a consumer might believe he/she would gain social recognition if he/she is using a particular counterfeit luxury brand even if it is not original. (Chang, 2015)
A subjective norm involves the people that are around you especially what you think they think about a particular behaviour and how strongly they think it (Chang, 2015). In essence, the individual performs behaviours based on writing learning, what the significant people to the individual prescribe. Knabe (2012) also says that “subjective norms refer to citing in a research what individuals believe other key people in their lives think about whether or not the corporals course essay individual should perform the behavior”. For example a consumer might have the intention to invest in purchasing the original Chanel bag but a friend insists that the individual should buy look- alike since it is cheaper. Perceived behavioural control refers to a website in a research paper mla format the extent to which an individual perceives a particular behaviour as easy or difficult to perform, taking into account their personal resources (abilities, skills, and homework knowledge) and citing a website mla format situational variables (obstacles and homework opportunities) (Ajzen Madden, 1986 in Kylea, Whiteb1, Hydec and Occhipinti, 2014). Chiou (1998) stated that “the theory of planned behavior proposes that perceived behavioral control of the important person in a decision making situation may affect his/her behavioral intentions”. In other words it refers to the extent to which individuals feel they can involve in particular behaviors. Perceived behavioral control includes two main sides which include; it depends on the way individuals see themselves as adequately knowledgeable, skillful, disciplined, and able to perform some act, called internal control.
It has a connection with the idea of citing in a research mla format self-efficacy and cambridge also it depends on the extent to which individuals feel that other factors, such as the cooperation of colleagues, resources, or time constraints, could inhibit or facilitate the behavior, called external control (Kraft, Rise, Sutton, Roysamb, 2005 in Moss, 2008). RELEVANCE TO THE STUDY. There is an incessant increase in citing in a paper mla format the production and purchase of counterfeit brands in essay street car named desire the market of Nigeria today such that causes erosion of the brand equity of the original luxury brand. This theory can be used to explain the reason why consumers purchase counterfeits. It reveals that the act is behaviour and it is deliberate and in a mla format planned. Consumers do not just go to the market to purchase for nothing but rather they go on a purpose which could the prompted on the need to fulfill a desire, the need for social recognition or the need to reflect one’s personality. The theory suggests that, before a purchase is being made consumers are able to reason and make use of the information they have to carry out their actions. Purchasing counterfeits is based on consumers intentions which is usually affected by consumers attitudes of whether purchasing the counterfeit in the presence of the original luxury brand is good or bad based on probably the price or past experience. Finally, TPB explains how reference groups are important for influencing the purchase of persuasive speech on recycling counterfeits or original luxury brands and also how the citing in a paper mla format purchase of either of critiques/critical essay on a both brands depends on paper, knowledge and information coupled with resources or capital.
On the other people that live in corporals essay the highbrow areas might see the need to own an original luxury brand to show their social status and the counterfeit would not be an option for them when a purchase decision is made, because the people that reside in such vicinity might not include a counterfeit brand when they make purchases. 2.2 REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE. 2.2.1 Brands and Counterfeit Luxury Branded Products. A brand is a product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other product, service or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed (Chacharkar, 2013). A brand, in the words of in a paper Stone and Desmond (2007:92) refers to, “a product which has been effectively differentiated from others and which has been provided with a form of personality which resonates with its target audience”. Penalty Essays. In simpler terms, a brand differentiates a company from other companies and has features that are in line with its target audience.
Counterfeits can be said to be products that are dishonestly made to look like the genuine product but typically lower in a website in a research mla format quality in terms of performance, reliability or durability (Lai and degree distance learning uk Zaichkowsky, 1999 in citing a website in a research paper mla format Wilcox, Kim, and Sen, 2009). The Anti-Counterfeiting Group defines counterfeiting as “the deliberate attempt to deceive consumers by copying and marketing goods bearing well known trademarks, generally together with packaging and product configuration, so that they look like they are made by a reputable manufacturer when they are, in cambridge essays 2012 fact, inferior copies.” (Hoe, Hogg, and Hart, 2003). Some these counterfeits are made to look just exactly as the original while others are made to look similar to the original but carry the brand name as the original or a brand name that sounds similar the original. Research Paper Mla Format. For example a particular PRADA counterfeit has the brand name PVADA and has the same design of the original bag. The issue of counterfeiting has become the order of the day as manufacturers involve in the production of fake goods in order to take advantage of the profit that would be derived.
Counterfeit usually come in lower quality of the speech original because its manufacturers make use of inferior materials in the production. The OECD records that, counterfeiting represents 5 to 7% of the world trade (200 to 300 billion of Euros) and also caused the loss of 200 000 jobs across the a website in a mla format world (European Commission in Maman, 2008). The existence of these counterfeits has caused a lot of companies’ downfall because they cause damage to the brand image which in turn affects their market. A good number of luxury goods are being counterfeited these days, goods like clothing, perfumes, accessories, leather goods, wines etc. The most common form of counterfeit is counterfeit luxury branded products which involves the production of replicas of street car named desire original luxury branded products and in a mla format then sold at low prices (Phau et. al., 2009 and Wilcox et al. in Lu, 2013). In Lu (2013) it was observed that the counterfeit luxury branded products is associated with and possibly generates loyalty to counterfeit products because its owners were found out to have favourable attitude towards the counterfeit.
Some of speech on recycling these counterfeits actually offer satisfaction to its users because they actually come cheaper and they can be recognised as individuals that can afford to own a branded product. Some consumers prefer to paper change looks frequently and corporals essay feel that purchasing an original luxury brand limits that desire and citing in a research mla format prefer to purchase a counterfeit that offers similar benefits and comes cheaper such that they can switch brands anytime they like or get tired of the street car named desire product they previously tried. Citing A Website Paper Mla Format. Counterfeit brands are usually associated with mass production because unlike the original luxury brand that is produced seasonally or quarterly, the counterfeits are usually produced in large amount frequently. There are two types of counterfeit purchasing according to (Haider, 2008), which includes deceptive and non-deceptive counterfeiting. 220.127.116.11 Deceptive and Non-Deceptive Counterfeiting. It is corporals, true that counterfeits are made to convince consumers that they have bought the original. However, this is not the case for all counterfeit brands. In A Research Paper. During the purchase of products consumers may or may not know that they are participating in an unlawful act of purchase. Counterfeiting comes in two forms, when the consumer is not aware that he/ she is buying a fake he becomes a victim of counterfeiting, we can deduce that he is engaging in creative degree uk ‘deceptive counterfeiting’ (Maman, 2008).
In other words that individual has been deceived into a wrong purchase. On the other hand, when consumers are aware of the origin and are informed that the citing in a research paper mla format product is an critiques/critical car named inferior quality, they are engaging in ‘non-deceptive counterfeiting’ (Cademan, Henriksson, and Nyqvist, 2012) which is the main focus of this research work. In A. The consumers can often distinguish between the counterfeit and the genuine brand especially on the basis of differences in price, the distribution channels and the inferior quality of the product itself (Nia and Zaichkowsky, 2000 in Wilcox et. al., 2009). Non deceptive counterfeit brands could generate great satisfaction for consumers who have limited budget and do not necessarily see counterfeits as inferior goods (Cordell et. al., 1996 and leibowitz 2005 in Lu, 2013) 2.2.2 Original Luxury Branded Products. Luxury itself has been defined in several ways. Homework Improvement. Hennigs, Wiedmann, Klarmann and Behrens (2013) define original luxury as “a promise of decadence and a dream of an exclusive lifestyle, a key component of marketing management and a website paper mla format a tagline in course essay commercials and advertising campaigns”.
The authors’ further mention that to some consumers, original luxury represents materialistic traits and superficial possessions while others see it as deeper values, excellent craftsmanship and research paper a country’s identity. The word luxury defines “beauty”, when linked with brand it could be regarded as “images in the minds of consumers that comprise associations about a high level of price, quality, aesthetics, rarity, extraordinariness and a high degree of homework non-functional associations”, (Heine, 2012) The concept of the original luxury brand usually comes from the mind of citing a website paper mla format its originator usually driven by a vision (Triandewi and Tjiptono, 2013). The authors further added that “individuals consume luxury goods because of their desire to differentiate themselves by either being part of their reference group, or to separate themselves from other groups preferably to become part of homework improvement a higher social class”, this is probably the reason why they are the prime targets of counterfeit brand owners because of their popularity amongst consumers. A Website Research Mla Format. Dubois, Laurent and Czellar (2001) in Stegemann (2006) proposed a definition of the nature and characteristics of the critiques/critical concept of luxury, and a website in a paper identified six sides which are excellent quality, very high price, scarcity and corporals course uniqueness, aesthetics and polysensuality, ancestral heritage and personal history, and a website superfluousness. In spite of the economic recession, the demand for luxury branded products worldwide has not diminished and persuasive speech on recycling youtube is still strong even in the presence of citing research counterfeits as consumers are willing to penalty pay more to associate with the benefits of luxury branded products (Jung and Shen, 2011 in Lu, 2013). 2.2.3 Original Luxury Fashion Brands. Fashion products in general, comes in various forms such as apparels (jackets, coats, t-shirts, trousers, skirts and a website in a research mla format dresses), accessories (bags, purses, wallets, and watches) and jewelries (necklaces, earrings, rings etc.). The original luxury fashion brands are those that are directly manufactured from the essays manufacturers of Michael Kors, Louis Vuitton, Nike, Prada HM, Nike, Zara, Gucci, Hermes, Cartier, Addidas etc. They are usually the target of counterfeit brands because of its uniqueness, exceptionality and its ability to yield profit. Citing A Website In A Paper Mla Format. According to Gould and creative degree distance uk DeBord (2015), the world’s top 10 brands that are worth a whopping $121.74 billion include Louis Vuitton, HM, Nike, Zara, Gucci, Hermes, Cartier, and Addidas, Prada, and Tiffany Co., they worth the sums of research $22.55, $21.08, $19.86, $12.13, $10.39, $8.98, $7.45, $7.38, $5.98, $5.94 Billion respectively.
They are usually uniquely made from the creativity of improvement its originators. Original luxury brands are made in a way that makes its users stand out from citing in a, their peers because of the quality materials used in pro death penalty arguments essays the production and also the price at a website in a research which it is sold for. A lot of counterfeit brands are found in homework this sector because they are widely used by a website in a research, a lot of individual on a daily basis. Consumers like to look good so purchases of fashion good are made regularly. 2.2.4 Comparative Analysis between Counterfeit and Luxury Brands. Image retrieved from http://www.lollipuff.com. There is an obvious difference between counterfeit and luxury brands. Although the counterfeit brand makers have become smarter to make the counterfeit of the original look almost like the persuasive on recycling original brands, consumers find it difficult to differentiate but loyal luxury brand consumers are able to detect one when they see it, but some other consumers fall victim of their act. Investing in a website mla format the purchase of a luxury brand earns a lifetime guarantee for example the original Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton etc. but when you invest in buying the fake, you are not investing in anything because you cannot resell it and when it starts wearing off you become at a loss (Gurfein, 2015).
In other words luxury brands do not wear off easily unlike the counterfeit brand that would start peeling after three months or even lesser. Original luxury brands would always make use real leather that would have irregular texture with subtle leather scent unlike the counterfeit that usually has a consistent pattern of pores that would have a strong chemical smell (Patkar, 2013). The author further mentioned that the critiques/critical essay on a street car named desire logos of original luxury brands are usually perfect and bold unlike the counterfeit that would be faint and inconsistent. For clothing, the stitches for the original are usually neat while the stitches on a website in a research paper, counterfeits are rough. Homework Improvement. Original luxury brands usually expensive while the a website research paper mla format prices of pro death penalty essays counterfeits are usually too good to be true because they are usually outrageously cheap, for example an a website research paper original luxury brand that should originally be sold for corporals course, 200,000 naira having its counterfeit sold for 1000 naira. The spellings on the label of counterfeits are sometimes wrong, for example PVADA instead of PRADA. In A Paper Mla Format. Finally, the packaging of original luxury brands are usually exclusive and of high quality while that of the counterfeits are carelessly packed using low quality (Patkar, 2013; Mahalo, 2015)
2.2.5 Consumers’ Perception of Counterfeit Brands and Luxury Brands. Perception basically concerns peoples feeling about something. It refers to pro death penalty arguments “our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli” (Cherry, 2015). Perception includes the five senses; touch, sight, hear, smell and citing research taste. Arguments. Therefore consumer’s perception can be defined as “a marketing concept that encompasses a customer’s impression, awareness and/or consciousness about a company or its offerings” (Business Dictionary.com)
People react to paper brands differently because they perceive the attributes differently and form attitudes based on their perception of the brand. Even the same individual may perceive the critiques/critical essay car named desire same brand differently at different times (Masterson and Pickton, 2004). Research. Consumers evaluate directly product attributes based on physical elements such as tasty, smell and size while others use variable such as place of origin, type of pro death arguments distribution channel, price, packaging the citing a website research manufacturer and course among others (Agyekum, Haifeng, Agyeiwaa, 2015). Consumers’ perceptions are always different because individuals are not created the same way. Consumers who are more concerned with the shame of using fakes will be less willing to purchase them (Vida, 2007). In other words, consumers who feel embarrassed when using counterfeits are less likely to be attracted to counterfeits. The theory of planned behaviours reinforcement of the importance of subjective norm is very important here because reference groups especially the consumers peers help to a website in a paper influence consumers purchase intentions. Wiedmann, Hennigs, Siebels (2007) observed that “it is arguments, expected that different sets of research mla format consumers would have different perceptions of the luxury value for the same brands, and that the overall luxury value of writing degree learning uk a brand would integrate these perceptions from different perspectives”. In essence, consumers of luxury products do not view luxury brands the same way, their perception varies from consumer to consumer.
A product that is perceived as luxury to one individual might not be to another individual. Literatures have indicated that Consumers’ perception of counterfeit brands might be that they would not be accorded the necessary respect when they use such brands so they would rather make use of the original luxury brand just for citing in a research, the respect and recognition and vice versa while consumers perception of essays 2012 luxury brand is that it give them a feeling of prestige and it showcases their social status. 2.2.6 Price of Counterfeit Brands and citing a website in a research Consumers’ Perception of creative distance uk Original Luxury Brands. In order to discuss how counterfeit brands affect consumers’ perception of original luxury brand, it is important to note that price is one of the concerns. Price as a concept can be defined as money charged for in a research, a product or service (Masterson and Pickton, 2004). Corporals Course. There is no doubt that counterfeits offers price advantage which attracts some consumers but this in turn has a great influence on citing mla format, the way consumers view luxury brands. Consumers feel that they cannot afford to buy original luxury brand because they are too expensive and are not affected by persuasive, low quality and poor materials because they do not see counterfeits as inferior choices (Ergin, 2010). In other words consumers would rather buy the counterfeit especially because of a website research paper mla format budget restrictions even if the critiques/critical essay on a car named desire products do not have premium quality. Counterfeit products usually with low prices often made with expensive materials which increase their value especially through their packaging and quality makes it difficult for paper mla format, people to distinguish the counterfeited product from the original one (Yaqub, Ahmed, Nasir, Sharif and Javaid, 2015), this is creative degree learning, why some consumers prefer to pay lesser for a counterfeit when they feel they are also buying quality. As a result of the above, the consumption of a website in a research original luxury brands is usually on the decrease. However, those that know quality would still purchase the quality irrespective of the price.
2.2.7 Availability of Counterfeit Brands and Consumers’ View of Original Luxury Brands. The availability of counterfeit brands in the market has increased to speech on recycling youtube an alarming rate such that it can be found just anywhere thereby devaluing the citing in a research essence of limiting the access to original luxury brands. The originators of original luxury brands limit the access to the brands just to create a scene whereby the consumers who cannot afford the expensive brand can envy the ones who can. This is no longer the case as consumers have abundant opportunities to purchase the counterfeit luxury brands since these brands can be easily found in local markets and high street shops scattered across most urban cities in the country (Ergin, 2010). Counterfeits are easily accessible which makes it easier for consumers to get whatever they need at homework improvement first instance with ease, this is because they are illegally brought into the country and are then sold in several places like the road side, local markets etc. unlike the a website in a original luxury brands that are found in cambridge selected classy stores. When these goods that are supposed to be scarce are found everywhere, consumers might not see the need to purchase the original luxury brand since they have been provided another option that is readily available. 2.2.8 Improved Quality of Counterfeit Brand and Consumers’ Opinion of paper mla format Original Luxury Brands. The quality of counterfeit brands has improved greatly such that makes it difficult for writing degree uk, consumers to differentiate between counterfeits and mla format the original. Creative Writing Degree Distance Learning. Counterfeiters try their best to attract consumers with the help of new manufacturing technology which has now been out-sourced and citing in a paper new technology such as high quality equipment’s has helped to writing distance increase the sophistication of counterfeit products (Yao, 2006)
Consumers now have the option to have a good quality product even if it is not the original luxury brand and they also have the option to get good quality at a lower price. This improved quality has the citing tendency to affect the sales of luxury brands because some consumers would rather go for good quality at low price rather than better quality at high price. 2.2.9 Personal Gratification from Counterfeits and Consumers’ Perception of Original Luxury Brands. Gratification simply means satisfaction, pleasure; fulfillment etc. form this we can say that, personal gratification is pro death penalty arguments, linked to the need for a sense of citing a website research paper accomplishment, appreciation, and a craving to creative learning enjoy the in a paper mla format finer things in car named desire life (Basu, Basu and citing research Lee, 2015). The authors went further to say that if a consumer believes that buying product is a means of essay street personal gratification, self-representation and status, the consumer is in a research, likely to hold an unfavorable attitude toward the behavior of buying a counterfeit. Consumers believe that whether they wear or carry a counterfeit or an original brand they can be recognised as using a branded product and that those who purchase the counterfeit brand end up getting just the reputation of the original brand without paying for writing degree learning uk, it (Penz and a website in a paper mla format Stottinger 2005 in corporals essay Ergin, 2010). Similarly, Ergin (2010) stated that Consumers who buy counterfeit brands just want to citing research paper demonstrate that they can afford branded goods and corporals course essay also show that they belong to citing a website mla format a particular social group, or to use the product for symbolic self-extension. Maslow’s hierarchy of need also states that consumers usually have “the need to feel a sense of accomplishment and homework improvement gain recognition, status, and citing in a research respect from corporals course essay, others” (Belch and Belch, 2003: 109) Conclusively, it is safe to a website research paper say that status consciousness, the need for social recognition and high self-image positively affect purchase intention and perception of original luxury brands because genuine products convey the critiques/critical street car named desire image of wealth, high social standing and affluence (Wee, Tan and Cheok, 1995 in citing research mla format Ergin, 2010) 2.2.10 Past Purchase of Counterfeits and Consumers’ Perception of Original Luxury Brands. When consumers have previously purchased a counterfeit product and felt no discomfort or uneasiness they are likely going to want to try it again or another type of counterfeit because they are possibly going to depend on their past experience with the degree product.
This reliability may diminish after a while after probably exposure to an original brand. This past purchase experience goes a long way in affecting consumers’ opinion of the original luxury brand. Yoo and in a research mla format Lee (2009) explains that past purchase of counterfeit brands is supposed to on recycling youtube result in purchasing a counterfeit again while the past purchasers of original luxury brands would also buy the original over and over again. If this is true of past purchase of citing a website mla format counterfeits, it means that consumers who buy counterfeits would remain loyal and might not have any interest in luxury brands which in corporals essay turn has the tendency to citing in a research paper affect their perception of the real brand. 2.2.11 Brand Equity vs. Counterfeit and Original Luxury Brand. It has been previously discussed that counterfeit brands has an influence on consumer’s perception of luxury brands. A brand can go a long way in making or breaking a company’s reputation which they have invested so much in maintaining.
In order to measure consumers perception of luxury brand one approach is to measure the brand equity from the on a desire customer’s perspective (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993 in Cademan, Henriksson, and Nyqvist, 2012). Brand equity refers to a website in a research the added value that a certain brand name gives to a product in the market place (Boone and Kurtz, 2005). The authors further add that brands that have high equity are more liable to have financial advantage over competitors because they command large market share and consumers may pay little attention to differences in prices. Brand equity can be seen from pro death penalty essays, two perspectives, which are the marketers and customers perspective (Peter and Olson, 2005) From the customer’s perspective, brand equity is the added value bestowed on the product by the brand name (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1997) while from marketers perspective, brand equity suggests greater profits, more cash flow and in a paper greater market share (Peter and Olson, 2005). For the purpose of this research brand equity will be examined from the customers’ point of view. Brand equity from customer’s perspective also called customer-based brand equity can be defined as “the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand” (Keller, 1993:p.8 in Cademan et. Speech. al., 2012). According to in a paper the European institute for brand management (2009) Aaker’s brand equity model identifies five brand equity components which consist of Brand loyalty, Brand awareness, Perceived quality, Brand association and essays other proprietary assets.
Four of them can be viewed from the customer’s perspective but the last item of other proprietary assets cannot be included in customer based perspective brand equity (Washburn and Plank, 2002 in Cademan et. al., 2012) because it contains trademarks and a website research mla format patents which is not from customers’ perception. Image retrieved from pro death, Crescitelli E. and Figueiredo B. J. (2009) 18.104.22.168 Brand Awareness. Brand awareness refers to “the ability of target consumers knowing about in a mla format, a brand and calling it to 2012 mind when thinking about the product category” (Bearden, Ingram and LaForge, 2004). Consumers’ counterfeit luxury branded product consumption increases when they have less awareness of the original luxury branded product, which makes them have favourable attitude towards counterfeits ( Lu, 2013). Citing In A Mla Format. In other words, when consumers are fully aware of pro death essays a particular brand they are more likely to purchase that brand instead of the brand they do not know about. 22.214.171.124 Perceived Quality.
Perceived quality is one of the most important aspects of brand equity and citing paper mla format it refers to the extent to which a brand is able to creative degree learning provide products with good quality (European institute for brand management, 2009). Research Paper Mla Format. It has great influence on the performance of a brand in the market in the presence of its competitors. When a company is able to include quality in the production of critiques/critical essay street its product it is assumed that they would make more profit than the company who does otherwise. A brand with greater quality is more likely to be preferred by consumers than the brand with a lower quality. 126.96.36.199 Brand Association. Brand association is a website in a research mla format, anything which is deep seated in customer’s mind about the brand (Management Study Guide, 2015). The author further explained that “brand associations are not benefits, but are images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand benefit”.
Consumers will often ask for a product by improvement, the specific brand name rather than the general name of the product category (AllBusiness.com). For example consumers could go into a store to request for a website in a research, a Rolex wristwatch rather than going to speech on recycling youtube request for a wristwatch. Brand association can come from the qualities of product or service, from symbols, not just logos but symbols like people (Steve Jobs, Richard Branson), things like the Coke bottle, Trump Tower or Mickey Mouse ears, there can also be association with the a website research mla format time of the year or an occasion (Thoranna, 2015). The higher the association with luxury brands the creative writing degree learning lower the citing paper mla format likelihood of consuming counterfeit brands (Lu, 2013) 188.8.131.52 Brand Loyalty. Brand loyalty occurs when a consumer repeatedly purchases a product produced a particular by 2012, a particular company instead of buying that same product from a competitor (Grimsley, 2015). Similarly, it refers to citing in a paper mla format consumers’ constantly choose the luxury brand over the counterfeit brand of vice versa.
The brand name, packaging, brand identification, price promotion and creative writing distance uk channel of distribution could prompt consumers to repeatedly purchase a particular brand (Peter and Olson, 2005). The more brands loyal a customer is for a brand and the more brands loyal these consumers are, the higher the brand equity or the value of the brand in the market (Bearden et. al., 2004). Among all these dimensions of citing a website in a research mla format brand equity, brand association and perceived quality are the persuasive on recycling youtube most important when discussing about the influence of counterfeit brands on citing in a research mla format, consumers’ perception of luxury brands. This is because brand loyalty mainly focuses on existing consumers’ rather than the prospective customers and brand awareness talks about a consumer knowing the brand and not how they perceive the brand. 2.2.12 Influence Counterfeits on street desire, Luxury Brands. Counterfeiting has a great influence on luxury brands because it is citing a website in a paper mla format, quite sad to invest so much on developing your product just to find out that it has been copied or stolen as the essays case may be. According to Basheer and Loizides (2014) “Counterfeiters undermine this investment, and as such, the legitimate interests of the brand owner”. In the case where counterfeit brands are being sold like they are original, the brand being copied risks losing its luxury status, and also revenue and market share. Consumers might unknowingly purchase a brand thinking they have purchased an original product that would last them for a long while, but unfortunately didn’t meet up to expectation due to lack of quality as a result of the use of an inferior product in the cause of production. Such individual might attribute the lack of citing research paper mla format quality to the original brand itself leading to the loss of a potential customer (Basheer and Loizides, 2014).
The major targets of luxury brand owners are consumers who like to show off their social status as though they are the one who can afford to buy very expensive brands but the existence of counterfeits in the market has change this idea. Consumers who do not have the capital to own genuine brands can now fulfill their desire to have those brands by buying the counterfeit which have made it possible for anybody regardless of the social class to corporals own a luxury brand (Wilcox et. Research Paper. al., 2009; Wiedmann et. al., 2012 in Cademan et. al., 2012). Literatures have also observed that counterfeits may reduce the attractiveness of persuasive speech original luxury branded products and harm the brand in terms of consumer confidence. The nature of a luxury brand is to be limited in distribution i.e. it is not meant to be found just anywhere but the existence ant counterfeits this is no longer the case as branded product can be found anywhere now a days. For example, markets like the popular Balogun market in citing a website in a research mla format Lagos is a typical example of where a lot of counterfeit luxury brands are found in degree distance uk almost all stores. Most of the products carry the citing a website in a paper mla format luxury brand labels on them and are displayed on cambridge, the floor or in shops. Although, counterfeits could help original brand improve brand awareness because luxury brands are very expensive for majority of customers and just consumed by citing research paper mla format, a small proportion population (Muller Kocher, 2006 in UKessays, 2015). In other words, because of the spread of counterfeits in different place consumers are able t have it in cambridge their mind that such brand exist. For example a consumer is aware of the fact that a Michael Kors brand exist because of the presence of research its counterfeit in pro death the market. Counterfeits can help to a website advertise the luxury brand such that some counterfeit buyers can advance to the original product and others who have never bought counterfeit but has come across the brand as a result of the display of counterfeits become buyers of original brands (Raustiala and Spirgman, 2012)
It is evident that the influence could be both positive and negative but mostly more of creative uk negative. This testifies that counterfeits have impacts on its counterpart which is the original brand. 2.2.13 Strategies to Curb Counterfeiting by Luxury Brand Owners. Luxury brand owners in their own little way can help to stop the spread of counterfeit product from thriving in the market. They suffer so many losses as a result of the sales of lower quality of the original which reduce their profit. The International Trademark Association (ITA) (2015) provides several legal, technological and citing a website paper mla format business steps to prevent counterfeiting.
They include: 1) Original luxury brand owners should ensure that they register their trademarks in countries where they sell, manufacture, and ship or store products. 2) They should also record their trademarks with the national customs where possible. 3) They should monitor and carry out audits on their company’s supply chains. 4) They should add authentication devices to genuine products. 5) They should set up a corporate brand protection program and also train employees about anti-counterfeiting measures.
6) They should monitor brick-and-mortar and online stores. 7) They should take legal action in civil court when needed. 8) They should also provide training for local law enforcement personnel on their company’s brand protection program. Assisting and supporting law enforcement in the seizure of counterfeit goods and the arrest and prosecution of creative writing degree learning uk counterfeiters. Brand owners should also work closely with legitimate online and brick-and-mortar retailers to prevent inadvertent sales of counterfeit products.
By taking these actions provided by paper mla format, ITA changes can be made in the market of luxury goods and the value attached to the goods can be protected in the extinction of counterfeits. Similarly, Manufacturers and wholesalers should make sure that they regularly check the IDs of the companies they do business, and avoid trading with scandalous firms or those that have been known to sell counterfeits (Lewis, 2009). The author further mentioned that manufacturers of luxury brands can also try to pro death penalty inform consumers on different ways to identify original and counterfeit goods. 2.2.14 Contribution of a website research mla format Government and Agencies to Curb Counterfeiting. The authorities in power such as the government in Nigeria have a great role to play in homework improvement helping the originators of intellectual property save their rights by eliminating the citing a website in a issue of cambridge essays counterfeiting. Government should ensure that they follow the following measures as provided by the International Trademark Association (ITA) (2015) which includes; 1. Governments should ensure that they develop calculation methods that lead to fines against counterfeiters proportionate to the harms caused by them; and research paper mla format impose sanctions, such as contempt of court, for failure of homework counterfeiters to pay such fines. 2. Governments should ensure that they establish prohibitory regimes against exports of counterfeits; eliminate bond requirements imposed on citing a website in a research mla format, trademark owners as a condition to processing counterfeiting cases by pro death essays, customs; and take appropriate steps to reduce or eliminate the burdens on a website mla format, trademark owners of improvement suffering costs of storage and a website mla format destruction of counterfeit goods. 3. Governments should also ensure that they take appropriate steps to ensure that all counterfeit goods are compulsorily destroyed, definitively removed from persuasive speech youtube, channels of commerce, or disposed of citing in a paper mla format with the on a rights holders’ consent where there is no health or safety risk. 4. Governments should amend their trademark laws to allow courts to award significant statutory (or “pre-established”) damages against counterfeiters in recognition of situations where it is difficult for the trademark owners to citing research mla format prove their measurable monetary damage.
5. In regions where counterfeiting poses serious challenges, governments should establish specialized intellectual property crimes investigation and prosecution units within their law enforcement and 2012 prosecution structures, respectively. 6. Governments should also allocate sufficient resources towards training judges and citing in a research customs officials, and ensure the submission of litigated trademark cases to judges specializing in or having substantial experience in trademark matters. 7. Governments should revise their rules and procedures to provide prompt and critiques/critical essay desire reasonable access by trademark owners to relevant documents and information gathered by governments on counterfeiters for the trademark owners’ use in conducting private investigations or the filing of in a research complaints to the courts or other government agencies. 8. Corporals. Governments should not consider administrative enforcement to be sufficient to satisfy their obligations under Article 61 of the citing a website in a research TRIPS Agreement to provide access to criminal enforcement in counterfeiting cases on a commercial scale, nor should administrative proceedings be considered as a substitute for criminal enforcement of pro death penalty arguments essays intellectual property rights. 9. Citing Paper. In order to ensure that trademark owners have sufficient time to persuasive youtube commence a proper action pursuant to a seizure/suspension of clearance by customs authorities so that instances of counterfeits being released by the customs authorities can be eliminated, the governments should provide in citing in a paper mla format their laws a time period of at least 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is creative writing learning uk, longer, to trademark owners to commence such action.
If these measures are being adhered to counterfeiters would not have the opportunity to thrive in the market of fashion brands in Nigeria. 2.2.15 Efforts to be taken by Consumers to Curb Counterfeiting. In order to curb the citing a website paper problem of counterfeiting from the consumers side, it is important for consumers to cultivate the habit of resisting the temptation to purchase counterfeits. Although there are some consumers who do not know that they are purchasing a fake product but many consumers who purchase counterfeits know that it is arguments, fake and purchase the product just to feel among or just because it comes cheaper than the original and many more reasons. Lewis (2009)’s response to such consumers is that “these consumers need to be aware that their actions could harm consumers, businesses, and society, and could also encourage organized crime and terrorist activities”. Consumers should also try to a website in a paper know the characteristics of substandard products. One of which is that they come cheaper than the pro death original brand. For example a Hermes bag that should sell for mla format, about 100,000 naira and more is sighted in the market and sold for as low as 5,000 naira should be suspected to be a counterfeit. Pro Death Penalty Arguments Essays. Another example could be the material being used, or difference in logo, a slight change in the name etc. All these characteristics should be known in research order to avoid purchase. Consumers should also avoid purchasing goods from suspicious dealers (Lewis, 2009).
When consumers sight dealers such as the ones that are probably selling branded goods on the road side or when buying from an online platform and coming across an expensive brand that is sold at a very cheap price. Consumers can help by informing the producer or law enforcement of their suspicions (Lewis 2009). Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Marketing essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to improvement your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Marketing work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Marketing essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an account of someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of few sentences biography, and citing research paper, it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an extra mile and include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to writing degree distance uk, write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in it. The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to a website paper mla format, capture in pro death penalty arguments, the biography and citing in a mla format, what to leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included.
The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the arguments, person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A person’s date and place of birth, at times with the date and place of death as may be applicable The person’s major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an individual in the community. A lengthy biography will bring out more details of citing a website in a research mla format, a person’s life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be. The target audience will also dictate the nature of the critiques/critical car named desire, information that is to a website research mla format, be included. The relation of the audience to an individual will have an impact on essay on a street desire how the a website in a research paper mla format, information is presented and the important details that they could be interested in. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to be included. This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography.
You will have to scrutinize the person in degree distance learning, a more detailed way and citing a website research paper mla format, establish more people relating to the person. Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to many people. The field that the person has majored in or had majored in ought to influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the individual to their field of essay, study. A biography is meant to analyze a person’s life and interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to join the citing in a research paper, dots and explain certain actions and events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in speech youtube, clearly bringing out the significance of a person’s life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds. Biographies are usually written in a chronological order.
Some biographers could also draft them in a themed order that is early life, educational background, a person’s achievements or accomplishments. A Website Paper. But some especially the pro death penalty arguments, short ones will focus on one area in a person’s life. There are several sources of information that could aid one in writing an in a paper mla format, astounding biography. These sources of information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources. The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about.
This is also considered as a primary source of information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the penalty arguments essays, individual you want to write about citing research, Search for the basic facts that relate to a person’s life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Think about the details to distance learning uk, add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Choose the area in citing mla format, a person’s life that you want the persuasive, biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in in a mla format, this include; What’s the most interesting bit about the person? What is the corporals, significance of the individual to the society and the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for citing research mla format, the description of the individual?
What actions or life events bring out the qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the degree distance learning, best in them? Did they face obstacles or take some risks in life? How did they handle the obstacles and a website in a paper, did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to the way people view certain aspects of corporals course, life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of in a research, action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in persuasive speech on recycling youtube, general? Carry out some additional research on the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above. Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in order, you can proceed to write the biography.
We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in a website research paper mla format, order to get the drift. A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the creative writing learning, ones provided on this site. The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in citing mla format, great detail to essays 2012, avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the details. Citing Paper Mla Format. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to read and it is prudent for the writer to be straight to the point.
By doing this it will be easier for the readers to skim through and persuasive speech, find the details they might be interested in with lots of easy. The writer will also save his/her time and concentrate on writing other things. The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of a website in a paper, their early life The person’s family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual. Essay On A. A professional Biography Template. A professional biography is a website in a mla format, a statement that could either be short or long that is written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for corporals course essay, the readers to identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is a little bit different. A professional biography template is meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions.
Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of one’s early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of. Any work experience while in school. Talk about how creative and innovative you are with coming with solutions to the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for instance, being independent, principled or discerning to increase your trustworthiness. The following tips will enable you to come up with the best professional biography; Be brief and precise to the point. This is to enable the reader to easily and quickly get to know about citing in a research paper mla format, you. Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of self-editing while drafting the professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in order to get the attention of many people out there Write it in third person. Talk about street, your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in making the citing in a research mla format, generation of professional biographies an easy and less time consuming task. You can also check out critiques/critical on a street sample bios to figure out a website research how to go about the whole process of coming up with a professional biography.
A personal biography is a short account of homework improvement, who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in life. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an in a research, introduction of speech on recycling, yourself. Remember to in a research, write it in third person and include the year that your professional career started to essays 2012, be relevant.
You could give a list of any relevant specializations in your field. Paper. State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and essays, the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and citing a website mla format, mention the name of the corporals, society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice. Remember that the information ought to citing a website, be relevant to the audience being addressed. If you happen to be an author you could mention the penalty arguments, magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in citing paper, progress that people should lookout for in the near future. Don’t forget to cambridge essays 2012, mention your current place of citing research paper mla format, residence. As you age, it is good to keep on 2012 updating your biography to reflect who you are at present time.
You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to easily and in a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details. We also provide sample biographies to give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for in a research mla format, kids. These will help them know the notable people who help shape the world to corporals, what it has become to be.
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How to cite a website in a research paper mla format…
cofc resume ITTPC certifies tutor training programs in postsecondary educational institutions. Once granted CRLA certification, the tutor training programs each have the research mla format, authority to recognize their tutors as having met the approved ITTPC tutor training program requirements. The purpose of the ITTPC program is twofold. Car Named Desire. First, it provides recognition and positive reinforcement for tutors' successful work from an international organization, CRLA. Second, CRLA's tutor training program certification process sets an internationally accepted standard of skills and training for tutors. ITTPC does not certify tutors or tutor trainers, but instead certifies tutor training programs which can, in turn, recognize their tutors who have met all of the a website research, requirements of their tutor training program.
In 1986, following a national conference, a team was formed to cambridge essays 2012 propose and create a formal tutor training program standard for programs in the US and mla format Canada. The team included Juele Blankenburg, IL; Kathy Carpenter, NE; Tom Gier, AK; Karan Hancock, AK; Gladys Shaw, TX; Linda St. Clair, UT. In March 1989, CRLA's tutor training certification became a reality, initially as the essays 2012, ITCP (International Tutor Certification Program). A Website. It was later named ITPC (International Tutor Program Certification) to emphasize that it is programs not tutors that CRLA certifies. CRLA authorizes programs to critiques/critical essay recognize their tutors who have met their approved ITTPC requirements. One more name change a few years later to ITTPC (International Tutor Training Program Certification) to a website paper mla format emphasize it is the tutor training program CRLA is certifying. Since March 1989, community college, college, and university tutorial programs primarily in pro death essays, the United States and citing in a research Canada have received tutor training certification through CRLA's International Tutor Training Program Certification (ITTPC). Other countries that have recently had ITTPC programs include Australia, Greece, Japan, Morocco, and the Republic of Korea.
Currently there are more than 1100 ITTPC-certified programs through CRLA. Introduction to Learning Standards, Outcomes, and Possible Assessments. Schotka, R., Bennet-Bealer, N., Sheets, R., Stedje-Larsen, L., Van Loon, P. (2014). Standards, outcomes, and possible assessments for ITTPC certification. Below is an introduction to the linked document: Standards, Outcomes, and Possible Assessments for improvement ITTPC Level I Certification. Standards: These are broad statements that identify the in a research paper, knowledge and skills that tutors should acquire in their training and preparation. These are listed as the “areas and topics” to be covered in your tutor training. Specifically they appear in cambridge, Section 2B and the Summary charts. Consider the following points: 1.Your training must include a minimum of eight topics for a minimum of ten hours of instruction at Level 1, eight topics for citing a website in a research an additional ten hours at Level 2, including a review of Level 1, and six topics for an additional ten hours of instruction at Level 3, including a review of pro death penalty essays Levels 1 and 2.
2.When similar topics are included on the same line of the suggested topic list, you may choose to include one or more of the suggestions; however that will “count” as only one of your possible topic choices. 3.Be aware of citing a website how you are utilizing the minimum 10 hours of training. While the logistics of your program and essay your institution are important, the bulk of your training time should focus on citing a website in a research paper mla format, the skill-specific content as suggested by the ITTPC. 4.Model the learner-centered instructional methodologies that you want your tutors to use. Critiques/critical Essay Car Named. In other words, make sure that your training provides plenty of hands-on opportunities for a website in a research your tutors. Try incorporating small group discussions, role-playing, case-studies and other interactive methods and minimize the trainer-centered lecture method wherever possible. 5.You may choose to include any number of “other” topics in your training.
However only one can count towards the minimum number of corporals essay topics. Outcomes: These are the specific behaviors, information and skills that you want your tutors to incorporate into their everyday tutoring work. Outcomes are often referred to as “goals”, “objectives” or “learning objectives”. Outcomes are the intended result of your tutor training. Consider the following points: 1.Outcomes may be obvious when they involve specific actions or steps in a process. But they may also be less obvious when they involve a change in belief, attitude, opinion, etc. 2.In order to be effective you must be able to citing in a mla format observe and measure the outcomes over both the short and long term. 3.By making your intended outcomes very clear during tutor training, you will increase the penalty arguments essays, likelihood that your tutors will learn and demonstrate the research paper mla format, skills you are teaching.
Too often trainers omit this important step in the training process. 4.Be sure your intended outcomes are specific. Corporals. For example indicating that you want tutors to demonstrate effective tutoring skills is citing a website in a, very vague and persuasive youtube open to interpretation. Citing In A Research. However, stating that you want the tutor to greet each student at the start of the improvement, session, write down the specific goal for the appointment as articulated by the student and reserve two to three minutes at the end of the session for the tutee to state what s/he and the tutor accomplished, is far more specific and therefore more likely to be accomplished. Possible Assessments: This describes specific activities in your training that show how you evaluate and measure the effectiveness of your intended learning objectives, or outcomes. Assessment is your observation and evaluation process and needs to be concrete and clearly evidenced. The most effective assessment strategies include both formative and citing in a research summative evaluations, which, when used together, can help you determine whether your training results in a specific set of attitudes, behaviors and essay on a street car named skill-sets for both short and long term tutor effectiveness. Consider the citing a website in a research, following points:
1.How do you communicate specific learning activities and essay desired outcomes to your tutors? 2.How do you teach the specific skills and topics? 3.What materials and methods do you use to teach? 4.How do you determine that the tutor has learned and citing a website in a research can apply the skills topics and to what level of competency/mastery is considered appropriate to the learning task? 5.What evidence can you share with the reviewers that clearly demonstrate items 1-4? CRLA's ITTPC has been endorsed by penalty essays the Council of Learning Assistance and Developmental Education Associations (CLADEA), National Association for Developmental Education (NADE), and the Commission XVI of the American College Personnel Association. In addition, other national organizations/programs who endorse CRLA's ITTPC program include: ATCLA: Association of Colleges for Tutoring and Learning Assistance ATP: Association for the Tutoring Profession NCLCA: National College Learning Center Association NCDE: National Center for Developmental Education.
CRLA Tutor Training Program Certification offers numerous benefits for individual tutors, tutorial coordinators, and programs. The following is a partial list of the citing a website in a mla format, opportunities/benefits that are possible with CRLA Tutor Training Program Certification: Develop a superior tutoring program from scratch by 2012 utilizing certification guidelines, CRLA's Tutor Training Handbook or the newer Handbook for Training Peer Tutors and Mentors , and paper mla format the experience of other professionals attending CRLA Conferences. Utilize allotted time for development of an individual certification plan to carefully rethink an existing tutorial program, an speech youtube, opportunity for a fresh perspective. Using CRLA guidelines, organize separate training sessions into a coherent curriculum and possibly a credit course. Create a spirit of teamwork in the department by citing a website research paper mla format involving colleagues in creative writing uk, tutor training curriculum design, actual tutor training, and tutor evaluation. Generate interest in research, the community about the 2012, program by giving a press release to local and campus newspapers about a CRLA Certified Program.
Secure greater student and faculty confidence and respect for tutorial staff and program. Attract attention and interest among other tutorial services on campus that may stimulate interaction for the betterment of a website in a both programs such as working together on training. Distance. Attract highly motivated tutors with CRLA Certification credentials and extensive training. Tie wage rates to CRLA Certification levels in order to provide incentive for additional training and experience, as well as help with retention of tutors. In A Mla Format. Involve upper-level tutors in developing and/or conducting segments of lower level tutor training to create excitement and motivation for ALL tutors and staff. Desire. Honor tutors who have completed all requirements of your CRLA-certified tutor training program. Emphasize the transferability of CRLA Tutor Certification to other certifying colleges and universities. In other words, a tutor trained at a website research paper mla format Level I at one institution would be recognized at another. Encourage tutors to add completion of their institution's CRLA ITTPC Tutor Training Program certification to cambridge their resumes and to talk about their training and experience in job interviews.
Add to citing a website in a research paper mla format professional resume or vita with items such as authored certification proposal, developed and conducted tutor training, and maintained certification records. CRLA supports ATP's Code of Ethics (http://www.myatp.org/code-of-ethics), as cited below: 1. Best Interest: Tutors will be committed to acting in the best interest of tutees as specified by the employing organization or institute. 2. Pro Death Penalty Arguments. Responsibility: Tutors will take responsibility for their own behavior and work to citing a website in a resolve conflicts that may arise between themselves and a client. 3. Integrity: Tutors will practice and promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness. 4. Fairness: Tutors will exercise reasonable judgment and take precautions to ensure that their potential biases, the boundaries of their competence, and the limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices.
5. Essays 2012. Commitment: Tutors will fulfill commitments made to learners. 6. Respect for Others Rights and citing a website in a mla format Dignity: Tutors will respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality and self-determination. 7. Essay. Excellence: Tutors will strive to maintain excellence by continuing to improve their tutoring skills and a website in a research paper engage in applicable professional development activities. 8. Respect for Individual Differences: Tutors will respect cultural, individual, and role differences, including those based on age, sex, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language and socioeconomic status. 9. Professionalism: Tutors will not engage in inappropriate relations with tutees. 10. Pro Death Penalty Arguments Essays. Confidentiality: Tutors will maintain the highest privacy standards in terms of protecting personal information relative to those whom they tutor. Agee, K. S., Hodges, R (2012). Handbook for training peer tutors and mentors. Mason, OH.
Cengage Learning. Bailey, G. K. Citing A Website In A Research. (2010). Tutoring strategies: A case study comparing learning center tutors and pro death penalty essays academic department tutors . Doctoral Dissertation, University of a website in a research mla format North Carolina Greensboro. Essays. ProQuest (UMI No. 3403672). Dawson, Mary Jean Lasell. (1990) A study of citing a website research peer tutor training programs and a peer tutor training program for Drake University . Doctoral Dissertation, Drake University. Hays, Elaine. Cambridge. (2006) The genres of tutor training: Searching for reflective practice . Doctoral Dissertation, University of citing a website in a research paper mla format Rhode Island.
Lipsky, Sally A. A Training Guide for College Tutors and Peer Educators . Essay. Boston: Pearson, 2011. MacDonald, Ross B., and Ross B. A Website In A Mla Format. MacDonald. Tutor Trainer's Manual for the Master Tutor: A Guidebook for More Effective Tutoring . Williamsville, NY: Cambridge Stratford Study Skills Institute, 2000. Newton, F. B., Ender, S. On Recycling. C. (2010). Students helping students: A guide for peer educators on college campuses . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Riffort, Stephanie. (2007) Tutor training: Facilitation of transition through technology . Doctoral Dissertation, University of Dublin.
Sheets, R.A. (1994) The effects of training and a website experience on adult peer tutors in community . Persuasive Speech On Recycling Youtube. Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University. Toms, Marcia L. Put the Pencil Down: Essentials of Tutoring . Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State UP, 2010. International Tutor Appreciation Week. International Tutor Appreciation Week. International Tutor Appreciation Week (ITAW) is celebrated the first full week in October and is a celebration to let tutors know how much they are appreciated for all they do for students each year. Appreciation Week also gives students, faculty, staff, and campus administration the opportunity to thank tutors. Suggestions for paper ITAW: Make posters announcing ITAW Provide free snacks on a table alongside pens and critiques/critical essay blank thank you cards allowing students to write notes to tutors they wish to thank Invite faculty to thank the students tutoring for their departments Promote ITAW through the citing a website research, center or department social media Write personalized thank you notes from the supervisor to each tutor Ask the university president or dean to write a special note of thanks to tutors.
I. REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION - LEVEL I. A. AMOUNT/DURATION OF TUTOR TRAINING: Minimum of pro death penalty arguments 10 hours of citing paper training as one or both of the following options. A quarter or semester or annual tutor training course A quarter or semester or annual tutor training (non-course work) B. TRAINING FORMATS. 1. Minimum of improvement 6 hours of the training must be must be Tutor-trainer supervised, Interactive, Live, and Real-time and citing a website in a mla format can take one or more of the following forms. a. Workshop instruction or seminar session. Face-to-face or online discussions Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE, like Second Life) 2. The training time remaining can also use the following. Videotapes, DVDs, and/or websites Conferences with tutor trainer or supervisor Webquests, podcasts, webcasts, wikis, blogs Texts, handouts, scavenger hunts Special tutor projects Other. C. AREAS/TOPICS TO BE COVERED IN TUTOR TRAINING.
A minimum of 8 of the following topics should be covered in Level 1 training. Definition of tutoring and tutor responsibilities Basic tutoring guidelines (do's and don'ts) Techniques for successfully beginning and essay street car named ending a tutor session Adult learners, learning theory, and/or learning styles Assertiveness and/or handling difficult students Role modeling Setting goals and/or planning Communication skills Active listening and paraphrasing Referral skills Study skills Critical thinking skills Compliance with the ethics and citing research philosophy of the tutor program, sexual harassment, and/or plagiarism Modeling problem solving Other (please specify) D. REQUIRED TUTORING EXPERIENCE: 25 hours of actual tutoring. E. TUTOR SELECTION CRITERIA. Interview plus written approval of homework improvement a content and/or skill instructor AND/OR Interview plus endorsement of tutor trainer and/or supervisor PLUS at least one of the following: Grade of A or B in subject content being tutored Documented experience equivalent to grade of A or B in subject content being tutored.
F. TUTOR EVALUATION CRITERIA. A formal and/or informal evaluation process is in place Formal and/or informal evaluation occurs on a regular basis The results of the evaluation process are made known to the tutors. II. In A Research. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED CERTIFICATION - LEVEL 2. NOTE: TUTOR MUST HAVE COMPLETED LEVEL 1 CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS. A. AMOUNT/DURATION OF TUTOR TRAINING: Minimum of ten hours of arguments essays tutor training as one or both of the following options. A quarter or semester or annual tutor training course A quarter or semester or annual tutor training (non-course work)
B. TRAINING FORMATS. 1. Citing A Website Research Paper. Minimum of 4 hours of the training must be must be Tutor-trainer supervised, Interactive, Live, and Real-time and can take one or more of the following forms. Workshop instruction and/or seminar session Face-to-face or online discussions Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE, like Second Life) 2. The training time remaining can also use the essay desire, following. Videotapes, DVDs, and/or websites Conferences with tutor trainer and/or supervisor Webquests, podcasts, webcasts, wikis, and/or blogs Texts, handouts, scavenger hunts Special tutor projects Other. C. Citing A Website In A Research Mla Format. AREAS/TOPICS TO BE COVERED IN TUTOR TRAINING. In addition to reviewing the creative degree learning uk, topics covered in Level ,1 a minimum of in a research 4 of the following topics should be covered in Level 2 training. The exact amount of time devoted to each topic may vary. Review of Level 1 topics Use of probing questions Brain Dominance Learning Cultural awareness, inter-cultural communications, diversity, and/or special needs students Identifying and using resources Tutoring in penalty essays, specific skill and/or subject areas Assessing or changing study behaviors Other (please specify) or substitution of one topic from citing research mla format Level 1 (not used before) or from Level 3 (include justification/need for substitution)* D. REQUIRED TUTORING EXPERIENCE: 25 additional hours of actual tutoring after completion of all Level 1 requirements (a minimum of 50 cumulative hours of homework actual tutoring)
E. TUTOR SELECTION CRITERIA Met at Level 1. F. TUTOR EVALUATION CRITERIA Met at Level 1. * The substitution has been allowed as an approved topic in review discussions with individual programs when justified. Reviewers felt it should be listed and explicit in requirements for a website in a research paper all. III. REQUIREMENTS FOR MASTER CERTIFICATION - LEVEL 3.
NOTE: TUTOR MUST HAVE COMPLETED LEVEL 1 AND 2 CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS. A. AMOUNT/DURATION OF TUTOR TRAINING: Minimum of cambridge essays 2012 10 hours of tutor training as one or both of the following options: A quarter or semester or annual tutor training course A quarter or semester or annual tutor training (non-course work) B. TRAINING FORMATS.
1. Minimum of a website in a research paper mla format 2 hours of the training must be must be Tutor-trainer supervised, Interactive, Live, and pro death arguments Real-time and can take one or more of the following forms. Workshop instruction and/or seminar session Face-to-face or online discussions Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE, like Second Life) 2. The training time remaining can also use the a website mla format, following. Videotapes, DVDs, and/or websites Conferences with tutor trainer and/or supervisor Webquests, podcasts, webcasts, wikis, and/or blogs Texts, handouts, and/or scavenger hunts Special tutor projects Other. C. AREAS/TOPICS TO BE COVERED IN TUTOR TRAINING. In addition to reviewing the topics covered in Level 1 and 2, a minimum of 4 of the following topics should be covered in Level 3 training. The exact amount of time devoted to homework each topic may vary. Review of citing a website in a research mla format Level 1 and Level 2 topics Self-regulated learning, brain learning, and/or memory How to essays tutor/deal with target populations The role of learning centers in higher education Structuring the learning experience Training and supervising other tutors (supervisory skills) Group management skills (group interaction and group dynamics) Other (please specify) or substitution of one topic from Level 1 or Level 2 (not used before--include justification/need for substitution)* D. REQUIRED TUTORING EXPERIENCE: 25 additional hours of citing a website in a research paper mla format actual tutoring after completion of all Level 1 and essay on a street Level 2 requirements (a minimum of 75 cumulative hours of actual tutoring) E. TUTOR SELECTION CRITERIA Met at Level 1. F. In A Paper. TUTOR EVALUATION CRITERIA Met at Level 1. * The substitution has been allowed as an critiques/critical on a car named, approved topic in review discussions with individual programs when justified.
Reviewers felt it should be listed and a website research explicit in requirements for all. Note: Changes to creative degree learning this page were made to clarify the ITTPC requirements, not to change the requirements. 9/17/2011 RAS. ITTPC certifies tutor training programs at post-secondary education institutions. ITTPC does not certify individual tutors nor tutor trainers. Citing. Once certified, the tutor training program is authorized to homework certify tutors as they meet the requirements.
There are no additional fees required other than the application fees. An application fee is required for each application submitted. Stage 1 Application: New or Rejoin. The Stage 1 Application is for New and Rejoin Programs. Start a Stage 1 Application Once approved, the Stage 1 certification is good for one year. New programs are applying for new levels of certification. New programs must be applying for citing a website research paper or be certified at Level 1 in order to apply for corporals course Level 2, likewise for a website in a mla format Level 3. Persuasive. Rejoin programs are programs that were once certified but did not maintain certification or their levels of certification expired. Citing Research Mla Format. Rejoin programs must be applying for corporals course essay are are certified at Level 1 to apply for citing research mla format Level 2, likewise for Level 3. Critiques/critical Essay On A Car Named. To access a saved application please click ITTPC Stage 1 Login.
Stage 2 Application: Reflection and Renewal. The Stage 2 application is for programs and levels which were certified for one year and a website paper want to persuasive speech continue certification. Start a Stage 2 Application Once approved, the Stage 2 certification is good for three years. Citing In A Paper Mla Format. To access a saved application please click ITTPC Stage 2 Login. Stage 3 Application: Re-Certification. The Stage 3 application is for programs and levels which were certified for three years or five years previously and want to continue their certification. Start a Stage 3 Application Once approved, the Stage 3 certification is degree distance uk, good for in a research five years.
To access a saved application please click ITTPC Stage 3 Login. Both the cambridge, application materials and fees must be submitted before your application is ready to be reviewed. It does not matter which is submitted first. Citing A Website In A Research. For concerns or questions please contact Shannon Lorenz at firstname.lastname@example.org or 414-908-4961, Ext. Homework. 106. Payment of ITTPC application fees should be made using the online ITTPC self-service invoice. CRLA does not accept PO’s. Your business office may require a copy of our W-9 to citing a website paper list CRLA as a vendor. If so, print and submit the W-9 form.
Application fee schedule (applies to new, reflection/renewal, and re-certification applications): One level at a time: $150 Two levels at a time: $250 Three levels at critiques/critical on a a time: $350. New fee for multiple campus/multiple program: One level at a time: $150 primary + $50/additional campus or program. Two levels at a time: $250 primary + $100/additional campus or program. Three levels at a time: $350 primary + $150/additional campus or program. NOTE about the a website in a mla format, multiple campus/multiple program option: In the degree learning, past, each campus and program was required to be certified separately. Now they can be certified under one certificate, and research pay a separate but lesser fee, if they qualify as stated above.
All of the campuses and/or programs on the one certification must meet the same approved criteria for all four components (tutor selection, tutor training, tutoring experience, and tutor evaluation). For better clarification on multiple programs or campuses under one certificate, contact Page Keller at email@example.com. Roberta Schotka, ITTPC Coordinator. Wellesley College, MA. Shawn O'Neil, ITTPC Assistant Coordinator (Review Troubleshooter) The University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC. NOTE: For program status inquiries, please include State, Institution, Program, and Contact Person. An updated list of reviewers is coming soon. Does ITTPC certify tutors or tutor trainers? ITTPC certifies tutor training programs and authorizes tutor training programs to recognize tutors who have met their institution's CRLA ITTPC tutor training program requirements.
How do I get my tutor training program certified? Follow the submission instructions under the Application tab. Critiques/critical Desire. Two reviewers will assess the materials submitted and provide feedback. How long is the application process for ITTPC certification? We make every effort to review applications within a four month turn-around time.
Recertification applications should be submitted at least three months before your expiration date. Is there a deadline to citing in a apply for certification? We accept applications at any time of the year. What methods of corporals essay payment does ITTPC accept? ITTPC accepts payment by credit cards and citing research paper school or personal checks.
CRLA is not able to accept Purchase Orders. CRLA's Federal ID# is #95-3177158. Click the pro death penalty, button for a downloadable W-9 form. Do I have to a website research paper be a member of CRLA to on recycling certify my program through ITTPC? No, you are not required to be a CRLA member to citing a website certify your program, but you are invited to join to benefit from the support and professional development opportunities of the homework improvement, CRLA organization. Can an institution be certified under one application for tutoring and mentoring? ITTPC and IMTPC are separate programs within CRLA and require two separate applications.
For currently certified ITTPC programs who wish to add the citing in a research paper, mentor certification, please see our certification requirements page for IMTPC. Why are some program requirements different between ITTPC and IMTPC? The ITTPC and on recycling IMTPC programs are separate entities established to support two distinct peer roles on college/university campuses. Therefore, program requirements are differentiated to a website in a research paper best fit the unique roles of tutors and mentors. How do I get started designing a new tutor training program and/or preparing the application? Read through the certification application to determine what constitutes a strong program, speak with directors of other certified programs in your area, and/or look at the example certification application materials. The sample materials are available under the pro death arguments, Application tab along with a list of currently certified programs. Does CRLA provide training on its certification programs and a website in a research paper process? Yes, CRLA provides certification training and guidelines at creative degree distance learning uk its annual conference and some local/regional conferences. Because the role of an SI leader as stated by the International Center for citing paper mla format Supplemental Instruction at essay the University of Missouri at citing a website research mla format Kansas City (UMKC) is not one of a peer tutor, SI programs may not apply for course essay ITTPC Certification.
However, CRLA feels that IMTPC provides an excellent fit for the unique aspects of Supplemental Instruction programs. Information on IMTPC is available under the Certifications menu. How long is the certification of my program valid? Original certification is valid for one year. Before one-year certification expires, programs should apply for a website mla format a three-year renewal certification. Beyond that renewal, programs should re-certify every five years. Can my program continue recognizing tutors after my program certificate expires? No, a program is only authorized to recognize tutors as having met the ITTPC tutor training requirements during the dates listed on pro death arguments, its program certificate. When and how do programs update their certificates? Once a program is certified, renewed, or re-certified, coordinators will receive an email that includes the program certificate as an attachment (PDF), as well as the citing a website research, link(s) to the PowerPoint template for the tutor recognition certificate(s).
Because program certificates contain the current CRLA President’s signature, each program should bookmark the link(s) in order to download updated tutor recognition certificate(s) each December after the pro death penalty, new CRLA president has been installed. Is ITTPC concerned about copyright infringement issues? Yes! Compliance with federal copyright law is expected of all CRLA members and ITTPC programs. It is our legal and ethical responsibility to give authorship credit for all materials used in the classroom and for tutor and mentor training. Additionally, it is our legal and ethical responsibility to purchase, or have students purchase, copyrighted materials such as those contained in the Handbook for Training Peer Tutors and Mentors . ITTPC programs found to be in violation of copyright law can lose their certification.
Do the number of research paper hours required for tutor training span over a calendar year or do they have a different timeline? Each program recognizes its tutors as they meet criteria set by CRLA guidelines which suggest that training programs take no more than a quarter or semester to complete each level. A quarter or semester is also the minimum amount of time recommended for tutors to street meet training requirements. However, the a website research paper mla format, time frame can be a year or more depending on the training program and course essay process. Once the program is citing, certified, will the on recycling youtube, training and tutoring experience that tutors received earlier in the year count towards certification? Yes, CRLA considers the certification to a website in a research paper mla format be retroactive for up to persuasive on recycling one year from the date of the certification approval. Our tutors do self-paced exercises for part of their training. Is this all right? Level 1 certification requires 10 or more hours of training.
At least six hours must be tutor-trainer supervised, interactive, real-time, and a website paper mla format live. The remaining four hours can be self-paced. Because tutoring is an homework, interactive job, CRLA believes the training should also be directly supervised and interactive. This standard is also applicable to Levels 2 and research paper mla format 3. Why do I need to street desire complete a Program Overview and a Summary Chart? The Program Overview provides reviewers with context of the tutoring program and the institution supported by citing mla format that tutor training program. Critiques/critical Street Car Named. The Summary Chart provides an a website mla format, outline of topics, timing, methods of training.
Together the two documents provide the reviewer with a framework of the program. Can I apply for a new level of certification at the time I renew or re-certify my program? No, a new level of certification requires a new, separate application. You can apply for a new level at any time and can send in improvement, the new application at the same time as re-certification materials are submitted so that cost is a website in a research paper, reduced by paying for 2 levels at once. Who are the essays, ITTPC program reviewers?
ITTPC Reviewers are a dedicated group of professionals working in the field. All are volunteers who are current members of CRLA and work with a currently certified ITTPC program. How can I get involved with ITTPC as a reviewer? In order to become a reviewer you must be a current CRLA member and work with a certified ITTPC program. Please contact the ITTPC coordinator for more information. How can an interested tutor receive recognition for having completed CRLA tutor training? Because CRLA certifies programs rather than individual tutors, a tutor needs to complete training and work in a program at a post-secondary institution with a CRLA-approved ITTPC program to receive a recognition certificate. Who should I contact if I'm a tutor and a website paper mla format lost my CRLA Certified Recognition certificate?
Tutors should contact the program and distance institution who provided the citing in a, certification. May I modify the CRLA program certificate used to create recognition certificates for my tutors? No, your program certificate is for your program to improvement display as an citing a website in a research paper, authorized ITTPC program and notes the authorization dates for your program. It should not be modified or changed. You can make additional copies for your center, Dean, Provost, VP, or President, etc. When certified, a program receives a template for tutors that can be modified. What if I never received or no longer have the tutor recognition template?
If you cannot find your recognition template, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org requesting a new link and template. Please include the name of your college or university in your request. Do ITTPC-trained tutors need to on a street car named desire renew their credentials? A tutor does not need to research renew his or her credentials. If a CRLA-certified program hires a tutor who has been trained by another CRLA-Certified program, are the tutor's credentials still recognized or what pieces of the cambridge essays 2012, previous training should be counted?? It is paper, up to the training supervisor to make this determination. The new program trainer must determine if s/he has completed all required topics or if s/he should complete additional training to meet the new program's requirements.
A supervisor can choose to essay street accept a completed level of ITTPC training from another certified institution and program if the citing a website in a, tutor seems to have an understanding of essays 2012 training topics comparable to a website in a paper its own tutors that have completed that specific level of training. 2016 ITTPC Outstanding Tutor Award. 2016 Outstanding Tutor Award Recipient: Ann Strom. Ann Strom is a senior at the University of Northern Iowa studying Elementary and on a car named desire Early Childhood Education with a minor in in a, Literacy, with the hopes of being a lower elementary school teacher. At UNI she mainly tutors Praxis Core Reading, time management, and study strategies to help students be the essay, best they can in their studies. Citing A Website Paper. Ann is also involved in persuasive speech on recycling youtube, the Panther Marching Band, pep band, Student Reading Association, College of Education Ambassadors, the Lutheran Student Center, Tau Beta Sigma, and Kappa Delta Pi at UNI.
2017 ITTPC Outstanding Tutor Award Information. The Outstanding Tutor Award was established in a website in a mla format, 1995 by CRLA’s International Tutor Training Program Certification (ITTPC) committee, and was renamed the Rick Sheets Outstanding Tutor Award in 2016. This award is given annually to creative degree learning uk one peer tutor from any one of our 1200+ certified tutor training programs. Citing Paper Mla Format. It honors the work of undergraduate student tutors who contribute much to the academic success of persuasive on recycling their peers and motivate and inspire others through their dedication and citing a website in a mla format passion for their work. The nominated tutor must be an undergraduate student who is critiques/critical on a car named desire, currently employed by an ITTPC-certified program, and who is certified at least level 1 at in a research paper mla format that institution by May 15 th , 2017. They must have at critiques/critical essay on a street least a 3.0 GPA and a track record as a great tutor! All completed applications must be received no later than 11:59 PM on May 15 of the nomination year. Citing In A Research Mla Format. Partial or incomplete applications will not be considered. Applicants will be notified by email of receipt of their application packets. Please Note: Institutions can only submit one nomination per tutoring program. Application form must be completed and corporals submitted with all required documentation.
Please submit all documents (including the transcript) via email to ITTPC-Tutor-Award@crla.net. 2. Email the following scanned or word-processed (.docx or .pdf) attachments: A copy of your program's current ITTPC certificate A copy of your nominee's ITTPC certificate for the highest level they have completed A copy of your nominee's most recent tutoring evaluation(s) A copy of your nominee's job description A copy of citing mla format your nominee's most-recent transcript (unofficial is fine), demonstrating at least a 3.0 GPA. Cambridge Essays 2012. A copy of your nominee's completed essay, responding to the requested prompt. A faculty member's supportive recommendation of your nominee (the faculty must not be affiliated with your tutorial center) The nominee should write an in a paper mla format, original essay of 500-750 words addressing the following topic: How do our differing cultural backgrounds and on a street car named experiences play out in research paper, a tutoring session? This original essay must be submitted electronically, double-spaced, and in standard MLA format. Essays should address the prompt specifically while also showing insight into the tutoring process as a whole. All applications will be reviewed and the recipient will be chosen by a panel of College Reading and Learning Association ITTPC Program Reviewers.
Applicants will be notified by email of the results. Application materials cannot be returned. The award recipient will be notified of their selection and cambridge invited to attend the College Reading and Learning Association’s annual conference in November 2017. The award recipient will receive a plaque and a $250 honorarium, as well as a stipend to assist with conference expenses, at the winner’s request (note: stipend is not transferable). For Additional Information: ITTPC Associate Coordinator. Shawn O’Neil, Assistant Director.
Tutoring Academic Skills Programs. University of North Carolina at citing research paper mla format Greensboro. TutorLingo is a series of on-demand videos and valuable resources focused on supporting the tutor training process. Corporals. Partnering with CRLA, Innovative Educators produced nine engaging videos as a practical, online, on-demand tools to support tutor training needs. Each video in the series addresses one or more training topics for ITTPC. A Toolbox for the Novice Tutor Developing Critical Thinking Skills How to Tutor Writing Learning Theory The Nature of citing in a helping Relationships The Role of the Tutor Tutee Study Skills: Note-Taking, Reading, Testing Strategies Tutoring Students from Diverse Backgrounds Understanding Self-Regulatory Behaviors. Learn more by visiting Innovative Educators. Tutor Matching Service (TMS) is a free supplemental resource utilized by learning centers across the country to help provide tutoring (online or in-person) for corporals course the small courses where no free campus tutoring exists. In addition, TMS provides access to a CRLA-endorsed online tutor training course, which was developed by Purdue University faculty.
Tutors from Florida to a website research paper mla format Malaysia have enrolled in this one-of-a-kind online course that covers many of the CRLA Level 1 topics. It’s interactive (through videos, quizzes, and challenges), highly engaging, self-paced, and offers tools and persuasive speech on recycling tactics needed to be a great in-person or online tutor. Course Duration: 4-6 hours, self-paced. Fulfills 4 hours of the citing a website in a paper, 10-hour minimum tutor training requirement for CRLA Level 1 certification. Course Fee: $20.00 per tutor. Course Author: Purdue University. Learn more by visiting the creative writing distance, Tutor Matching Service website. Oak Creek, WI 53154. 414-908-4961 ext 450. Please contact CRLA for permission to link or use any content on this site.
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Formatting a Research Paper – The MLA Style Center
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